Английский практикум Экономика США

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091513 0150 1 Английский практикум Экономика США 1. Characteristic features of economic development

 

Rates and factors of growth. 80-90-е years were marked by an amplification of items of USA in world economy. Them THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT, commercial production were increased in 1,7 times. Среднегодовые rates of increase THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT came nearer to 3 % and exceeded a similar parameter of all developed countries as a whole. The growth differed by stability, the economy have gone through one recession of production in 1991.

The rather high rates of economic growth do not accompany by appropriate increase of norm of accumulation. USA were not selected by high norm of the savings and investments. Last considerably concedes общемировым to parameters and parameters of all developed countries on 3-6 items and almost twice of Japan. A low share(long) of the investments link with decrease(reduction) of the prices on the investment goods concerning other constituents THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT. The counts of the investments in a fixed capital on basis of constant prices testify, that their share(long) remains concerning stablis within the last decades.

The relative researches have shown, that the American businessmen used the capital more effectively, than their competitors in Japan and Germanium. For 1973- 1993 г.г. The American companies had average norm of a net profit in 9 % on a comparison from 7 % at the German and Japanese companies.

Despite of a reducing share of the savings and investments, their total volume was increased for 70-90-е years in 3,8 times, having made in an extremity 90 years the huge sum — 1,5 billion dollars. To 90 years more halves of private investments direct on updating of active elements of a fixed capital — machine and equipment. 21-26 % of the private investments went on the equipment of an information orb and programm maintenance.

Electronic — computer facilities and information technologies of steel to play revolutionary a role in productions. These branches have supplied a main gain of production and productivity of a transactions. So, in 1994-1998 years. The productivity in an electronics engineering and branches, connected to it, reached 40 % of a gain per one year. In branches informational — communication of an orb there is more than 4 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT. The marked above feature of development of the American facilities per 90 years has given a number of the contributors the basis to name « as new economy». However it is necessary to mark, that on separate evaluations, for 1987-1997 years the general factors the productivity has decreased in orbs, where high intensity of use of information technology.

The technological shifts in the American facilities were supplied with scale scientific and technical development. USA have largest in the world by a scientific and technical potential, which in modern conditions is a determinative of development of economy and competitiveness in world facilities. The annual appropriations on RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT in USA make 45 % of similar costs of developed countries taken together, exceeding 200 billion dollars per one year.

More 2/3 scientific costs of an industry are necessary on the programs of annual cost more than 100 million dollars. In other countries similar on volume of the programs units are totalled. It allows a message scientific work& on broad front and to achieve fast transformation of outcomes of basic researches in applied development and technical innovations.

The shifts in a technical structure of the American facilities were accompanied by modifications in structure of a labour. The maintenance concerning high rates of economic growth was promoted by improving quality of a transactions. The level of educational preparation of the workers was increased. 57 % of a labour was trained in colleges (middle 70 years — about 1/3), about 15 % has ended universities, 7,5 % has degrees and above.

In country the rate on magnification of costs on professional preparation of a labour was conducted. It is considered, that the formation should become a constant by function of the person on stretch it of life in conditions of fast development scientifically technical progress.

The labour was used not only intensively, but also is extensive. The working hours occupied was increased, it became most continuous among industrial countries — about 2 thousand hours per one year. It almost for two working weeks is more, than in Japan. In spite of the fact that the rates of increase of productivity of a transactions were lower, than in 50-60-е years, USA save the superiority in a performance level in a manufacturing industry above other countries in 1,3-2,3 times.

In an outcome of modifications in use of major factors of production per second half 90 years the character of dynamics of general factor productivity was changed. After long time she became positive — 0,65 % per one year. Was negative — minus 0,6 % for 1973-1995 yy earlier.

Per 90 years there were noticeable modifications in conditions of reproduction. More than on 1/3 the armed forces were reduced. The share of military costs was reduced up to 3,3 % (per 1982 — 4,8 %). The constituent воспроизводственного of process became nature protection activity. Costs for protection enclosing among have reached 2 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT (1 % in an extremity 60 years). Because of of such activity there was a market of appropriate technologies, equipment, consulting and other services — ecological business. It became profitable.

The economic rise promoted a diminution of unemployment. She was kept at lower level, than in other developed countries — 5,6 %. The rate of inflation to 2,7 % has decreased, against 4,7 % per 80 years that corresponded to a level of all developed countries.

At the same time the economic development was burdened by a number of problems. Long time with 1970 for 1997 the public finance was reduced with a deficit, on what the greater influence there were huge military costs. Together with a deficit increase a gross national debt, which has made in 1970 — 37,6 %, 2000 — 62,7 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT. The costs for payments of percents(interests) become to exceed federal costs for formation, science, transport, housing сonstruction and the social help.

The social status in country was characterized by magnification of a rupture in the incomes. In a middle 90 years the income 10 % of the richest population in 17 times exceeded the income 10 % of the poorest Americans. The similar ruptures complicate the social attitudes, reduce interest in a productive transactions. In country the high level of maintenance by the foodstuffs is marked. The average American consumes twice more foodstuffs, than on the average in the world, however, on official datas, person constantly undereats 38 million.

Items of USA in world production. Taking leading items in world production, USA dominate in development many наукоемких of branches. They advance other countries both on a share, and on volume of high technology products, concentrate more than 1/3 it of volume. So, in world airspace production on their share(long) it is necessary 55 % of volumes of sales (Japan — 2 %, Germanium — 3 %), in production of the computer equipment — 34 % (Japan — 27 %, Germanium — 4 %, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA — 1 %) etc. Only in production of Communication facilitieses the American parameters are equal Japanese till 25 % of world) production. For want of it it is necessary to mark, that on a relative parameter « of economy of knowledge » USA concede Germany, on highly technologies to production of Japan, Britain. Highly technologies of branch 3,7 % of productions in an enterprise sector of Japan, 3,3 % in Britain, but 3 % in USA ensure.

The Americans keep very strong items in accumulation and processing of arrays of knowledges and in granting of information services. In USA 75 % of data banks which are have in developed countries concentrated. This factor plays an essential role, as the fast and qualitative information maintenance became in all of a growing degree to determine efficiency of use of an industrial means.

USA act by the largest manufacturer of agricultural production. They make about 12 % of world volume пшеницы, 1/3 corns, 50 % of soybeans, 21 % of a clap(cotton), 18 % oil, 17 % of meat.

The strength of items of USA in world facilities ensures with a reached technological level, conditions of an investment, availability of the brave capital, efficiency of inducing of a labour.

Characteristic features of a social structure of facilities

Level of concentration of the capital. The features are traditionally inherent exclusive — in social structure of the American facilities. The key items in an industry, credit orb take large and largest corporations. The densities of corporations with number occupied from 500 persons and is higher in total volume of production makes 53 %, including in a bank orb at 50 corporations 1/3 assets and deposits almost 12 thousand banks of country concentrated approximately.

In an agriculture the main role is played by major concerns of an industrial type (income more than 0,5 million dollars). In a middle 90 years they made 2,4 % of total of facilities, 16,5 % of agricultural grounds possessed and ensured 46 % of total volumes of marketed products of an agriculture of USA. The number of the farmers — proprietors steadily is reduced. The farms with the revenue up to 50 thousand dollars make 9 % of agricultural productions.

If to emanate from the legal forms of organization of the property, the main body of production is ensured with partnership and corporation. The partners of facilities (10 % from a total number of facilities), possess 17 % of agricultural grounds and give 19 % of productions. The corporations, making 4 % from a total number of facilities, focus 18,3 % of grounds and 25 % of production. Almost half of all agriculture works either on completely, or on the partially leased grounds.

The industry in conditions of a structure characterizes by rough processes of concentration and centralization of the capital. They have reduced in almost full transformation of one-branch corporations, диверсификации of their industrial activity. The majority of corporations has some product lines.

The essential role in an organizational structure of business is played by the small-sized and average enterprises. The enterprises with number occupied up to 9 persons ensure 10,8 % of productions in country. Many small-sized and average companies included in production process of large associations, act by the constituent of their market. This binding is carried out through a contract system, subcontract, technological communications.

Processes of concentration and the centralizations of the capital, modification of a joint-stock pattern of ownership have changed structure and regional structure of traditional financial groups: they have turned to larger unions. The one-branch magnates were washed away, their property became intimate at the expense of use of intermediate financial institutions.

Items of the state. In the American facilities the state does not play a significant role as the proprietor of means of production and cumulative businessman. A share(long) of public sector in THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT — about 4 %, and together with the enterprises of local authorities — about 13 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT. In it occupied about 14-15 % of a labour. The state posesses a significant part of the property — almost 25 % of territory, web of federal roads and many other enterprises of an infrastructure.

The state plays a defining role in reproduction of a labour, protection of an environment, development of a scientific orb. It realizes national regulation through money -credit and budget policy, federal contract system. As a whole state executes public significant functions, which either do not bring the fast income or are not optimum for the private managing subjects.

The costs of central administration are at a average -world level (1980 — 17 %, 1998 — 20,4 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT). Per 90 years the role of the state in regulation of business activity increases. Especially brightly it was exhibited in agricultural production and in reproduction of a labour. The costs for formation, public health services, social maintenance make 17 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT, and with allowance for of costs of local government bodies — more than 21 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT.

The labour attitudes. The attitudes(relation) a labour — the capital develops in main under influence of a supply and demand to a labour, difiniendums by needs of an amplification of competitiveness of American production and increase it scientifically capacious. The new approaches to labour controls having for an object flexible management and monitoring above the workers and the employees and imitating partnership of the worker in businesses of the company are used. It, in that number, includes possession of the share capital (more than 10 % of the workers possesses the share capital of the companies, on which they work).

The payment of a labour is directed on compulsion it to increase a general educational and professional level. So, at the Americans have maximum formation, the level of the incomes on 60 % is higher, than at the graduates of high schools. For want of it the policy of constraining of growth of the actual wage payment carries out. She a little bit has grown for 80-90-е years (1,2 times for working hour). The trade-union movement renders the limited influence to a position of a labour. Only 14 % of the workers and employees consist in trade unions (20 % in 1983).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. USA In the INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ATTITUDES

 

USA take an exclusive position in the international markets. On their share it is necessary large on a comparison with any other country a part of exportation of the goods, services and capital. For want of it the American facilities do not concern to export -oriented. The export of goods on a comparison with other countries has low densities in national production. The export quota changes round a parameter 11 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT.

For the last decades the American economy became more open. The share(long) of foreign trade in THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT for 90 years was lifted on 4,8 items in a comparison with 1,5 and 3,5 items in 60 and 80 years.

The degree international process sharply changes. The number of branches of economy has a high degree of an export directedness. USA export approximately fourth part of agricultural production, and on some it to kinds this parameter makes more than half. In an industry of USA there was a sector, closely connected to the external market, of 7 branch of a manufacturing industry, on which there come almost three quarters of all exportation of industrial production. The export markets ensure about one quarter of production of a general mechanical engineering, with more one fifth — on drives and turbines, over two fifth — on planes.

The industrial drives, pumps, compressors, control and measuring equipment, agricultural machines, office equipment, computers, semiconductors, telecommunication equipment, scientific and medical gears, planes(airplanes) and drives to a Nim, automobiles enter the oil refining and building equipment, into number the expert specialization of production of a mechanical engineering.

At the same time lot of branches of a processing industry: polygraphic, резинотехническая, food, weaver’s, furniture industry, production of building materials — in a minor degree participate in an international division of labour. These branches of a gradually have returned to the foreign competitors not only significant part internal, but also international markets.

Items in world trade. USA, behind an elimination of three years 1988-1990 гг., take the first place in world trade. Per 90 years the foreign trade items of USA were improved. From a middle 70 up to a middle 90 years the tendency in the world markets acted unfavorable for USA. The improving of international competitiveness is connected to increase of a scientific and technical potential of the American corporations in many temporary industries, significant decrease of production costs and geopolitical modifications a feast — disorder of a world socialist system.

There were modifications in costs on a lab our, which is made by 70 % of all industrial costs of the companies and were reduced in a comparison with Japan, Britain.

The noticeable place in production of country takes importation of the goods and services. At the expense of it 12 % of internal demand, among 20 % of needs of USA in textiles, steel and number of their kinds important for facilities of production, and on some of frames — in the much greater degree is satisfied. For example, the share of import makes 30 % of volume of annual sales of automobiles. Per the last years the share of import in sales of machine tools of the equipment has increased up to 50 %, and in sales of a household electronics engineering, footwear and some other goods has exceeded 80 %.

Characteristic feature of foreign trade ties is them deficit. Since 1971 the foreign trade turn-over is reduced with a deficit, which is as an outcome of slacking of competitive items in a number of branches, and parameter growing интернационализации of the American economy.

The important certificate of a leading role of USA in the international economic attitudes is the movement of balance of payments and receipts for technology. Accounts for registration of the patents, purchase of the licenses, trademarks, development of design, copyrights here enter, of the industrial rights and exemplar, ««know-how», payment of services in the field of management etc. Only a few countries had per 90 years constant asset of the technological balance, and USA on this parameter have the greater separation. The active balance under these articles in a balance of payments made about 15-25 billion dollars.

Despite of a positive balance on international operations by services the current articles of a balance of payments in 80-90-е years were reduced with a deficit from 0,8 up to 3,5 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT. The deficit under the current articles created for the foreign companies of a possibility of an investment in facilities of USA of a part of the currency means, obtained from export.

The influence of a deficit of balance on current operations (balance of foreign trade, incomes of the factors of production and transfers) was unequal on economic growth. Per 80 years in connection with decrease(reduction) of norm of the savings and investments the engaging of the foreign capital went to a great extent on financing of consumption and deficit of the federal budget, instead of on the investment. Per 90 years, when the national savings have increased, the inflow of the capital in a large degree went on capital financing.

Items in international movement of the capital. Per the last decade there were radical changes in a world item of USA connected to movement of the direct foreign investments. On their basis in progressing scales shaping international production joining economy of USA with facilities of other countries more by close connections happens than it was done by trade.

The export of the direct investments continued to grow, but due to the extension of number of the international investors the densities of USA in flight of capital was reduced. In 1960 on a share of USA it was necessary more than 60 % of world volume of outflow of the direct investments, and in 1997-1999 yy.. — already 22,2 %. For want of it the American export of the direct investments considerably exceeds similar process from any other country (Britain — 15,8 %). In the geographical attitude more than 50 % of the American direct investments is directed to countries of EU.

In 80-90-е years of USA become the largest object of appendix of the foreign direct investments: the inflow of the foreign investments exceeded exportation American.

The heavily foreign investment in the American economy is the certain indication of its force. The businessmen of other countries acquire and create industrial cells in less technology sectors of facilities. Thereby they allow the American capital to pass in more modern секторы, supporting for want of it stability of a general economic system of country. Per the last years on foreign firms 4 % of a lab our occupied, and in a manufacturing industry — 10,8 %, approximately 25 % of documentary export is carried out the foreign enterprises. On them it is necessary almost 37 % of import of countries. In separate branches of firms inspected by the foreign capital, make 20-30 % of national outputs. The foreigners inspect 18 % of assets of a banking system. But in intersection joint international economic space the American capital remains in main propulsion.

The same character has inflow of the loan capital from the international финансово-credit markets. The loan capital acts in USA because of market and non-market interests. It is attracted with high yield, reliability of a location, perspective of the future growth. By virtue of these conditions of USA are by one from the largest centres of appendix not only legal, but also illegal, shadow, criminal capital, centre « washings up of money ».

The external obligations. The modification of items of USA in global economic cooperation’s has called growth of the external obligations, which were derivated per second half 80 years and represent a difference between volume of all varieties of the investments of the foreign capital in USA and volume of all kinds of the investments of the American capital abroad. In 1998 they exceed 1,3 , or 15 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT. On a share of USA the largest part of the world obligations -24 % is necessary.

The external obligations have allowed to soften socio economic difficulties of structural reorganization of the American economy. Using external sources of financing, USA have had an opportunity to conduct large changes in the facilities connected to transition on resource to save up a type of development to a lesser degree at the expense of own means, than it would be for want of other circumstances. In this sense the growth of economy of USA per 80 years in a significant degree is paid by lag of rates in other countries, first of all, West-European. The given circumstance should be considered as one from manifestations of a leading role of USA in world economy, their ability to use it resources for a solution of national problems.

Now there are no, fears of large withdrawal of financial assets from USA. In world facilities there is no country or groups of countries having a comparable potential, exhibiting dynamism of growth and capable to accept such capitals. However hereafter probably significant redistribution of financial assets, including by перелива of the capital from USA in other countries and regions, but for this purpose there should be twisted by economy comparable on the power with American.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Factors of world influence of USA

 

At the present stage of world development a size and level of the national market act by the important factors of world influence. The high degree of security of USA by own resources rather constrains growth of dependence from external sources and gives макроэкономической policy of USA a sufficient degree of freedom. But the sales of the goods and services of many countries depends on demand on largest in the world the American national market, especially it concerns to ready items and those kinds of raw material, which the facilities of USA in a large degree are supplied at the expense of import with.

Largest in the world volume THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT means, that USA spend much more any country for current consumption and investments.

The modifications in the American economy, and also modification of conditions of access on the American market render essential influence to a position of the exporters. For example, place by the most developed mechanical engineering, USA simultaneously act by the largest importer of machine-technical items, accepting of approximately 1/5 world export of machines and equipment, carrying out purchases practically on all kinds of engineering. It induces other countries actively to struggle for access on the market of USA and solidifying of the items on it, that answers basically interests of USA. In an outcome of competitive struggle between the exporters the release of the American means for their use on more progressive directions, due to sufficing of a part of need of facilities and company happens at the expense of cheap import.

By the largest exporters in USA industrially developed countries act: Canada directs in USA more than 80 % (31,3 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT), Japan — more than 20 % (3,1 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT), and Germanium — 1-10 % of the export (2,6 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT). The stable deficit in trade with these countries became characteristic feature of economy of USA. The access on the market of USA was for called countries one from main conditions of their economic development. Per the last years the economy of USA became one from the main consumers of export production not only industrially developed countries, but also new индустриализующихся of countries. |Так, on USA it is necessary 91 % of all export of Mexico (22,6 % 1THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT), more than 90 % — Malaysia (27,7 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT), 40 % — Philippines, 32 % — Brasil.

USA act by the large market of a labour. Alongside with labour legal migration the large scales of trade in the alive goods (modern form of the slave-trade) are characteristic of it.

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USA are the largest exporter of high technology products. They posess about 10 % of all market such of production outside country. Simultaneously with it USA act by the main market for the leading exporters of production of high technologies. The long of high technology products in cost of all import of USA makes about 14 %. The large potential of export activity is contained with the newest directions of scientific and technical progress. USA belongs 70 % of the global market of the software for the COMPUTER. The realization of intellectual production, various kinds of a scientific and technical information becomes a more and more perspective kind of international business, is the important conductor of global influence of the American corporations.

The development of economy of majority of countries bases on reachings of scientific and technical progress, use of scientific datas. As it was marked, 70 % of a scientific information is contained in the American data banks. As even in Europe and Japan is not present equivalent data banks, still long time their scientific, the engineers and businessmen will continue to scoop knowledges in main from the American sources. It strengthens their dependence on USA, influences the commercial and industrial strategy of the consumer of an information.

Until now in many less developed countries of willows countries with transitional economy the food problem is not decided(solved). They depend on deliveries of the foodstuffs, including from the food help. USA act by the largest exporter of agricultural production (35 % of world) export wheat’s, 69 % of corn, soybeans, 25 % of a clap(cotton), 18 % of rice, 12 % of tobacco).

The important influence to an economic situation of country and on other countries renders sharin in international production basing on the foreign enterprise capital. On a share of USA it is necessary 24 % общемирового of volume of the accumulated direct investments. The American share was considerably reduced (43 % per 1980), but remains to largest. It is accepted to name a web of international production created by means of the direct foreign investments, in the economic literature as the second economy.

The second economy of USA takes the special place in a world system. On the industrial, scientific and technical and financial potential it essentially exceeds similar orbs of managing of the nearest competitors of USA in this area: Евросоюза and Japan. Already in a middle 80 years on 20 thousand the foreign enterprises, inspected by the American capital, occupied more than 6,5 million of the workers and employees, that made a quarter of all labour occupied at the enterprises, inherings American ТNC. Volume of sales of the goods and not financial services by foreign branches and подконтрольными by firms corresponded approximately 1/3 trade turnover of the mother companies and brought about 1/3 profits (at Japanese — 12 %). Total volume of sales of the enterprises and firms of the second economy corresponds 32 % THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT USA. The skeleton of the second economy will be derivated by foreign industrial firms, which purchases on 80 % are ensured with deliveries of mother corporations.

The heavily interaction of the foreign enterprises American TNC with economic structures of USA expressexpress in the most relief form in growing industrial cooperation of foreign branches with mother firms. Among the machine-building companies has received development issue of the goods for the American market at the foreign assembly enterprises, inherings TNC, from knots and detailses delivered from the enterprises of the mother companies. The creation of the similar closed cycle of production ensures American TNC deriving of milliard profits annually. The main prize here is ensured with relative cheapness of a labour occupied at the foreign enterprises.

The incomes of the investments TNC are the important factor of ability of USA to finance the foreign activity both institutes of international cooperation and developments.

Items in the international markets of the loan capital. The American facilities lean on the high-power internal market of the loan capital. The companies and state act by the largest global creditors and largest world borrowers simultaneously, in broad scales use the capital of other countries.

The scales of the internal credit market are the high-power factor of influence of USA on world movement of money resources. In the beginning 90 years volume of credit resources allocated by this market, has exceeded 1000 billion’s dollars annual, that considerably exceeds magnitude of the credit market anyone from other developed countries. In conditions of close interaction of the money markets, their actual integration in the world market of credit resources of an event in the money market of USA, the turns of monetary policy of country essentially influence the general provisions of businesses in world economy and its monetary orb.

The maintaining of leading items of USA in world economy is promoted by an international role of dollar, which Remains by a main reserve and settlement means in a world monetary system. The convertible reserves of central banks of other countries on 61 % consist of dollars, almost 2/3 accounts in world trade are carried out in dollars; dollar is a measure of value of many important goods (for example, petroleum) in the world market; in dollars is carried out(conducted) of 3/4 international bank creditings. The role of dollar considerably exceeds economic weight of USA in the world.

USA is received by the large incomes from issue, issue of token moneys. The dollar money supply reaches(achieve) huge magnitude in 560 bill. More 2/3 these masses rotate outside of the American facilities, in main in Russian Federation. She means the actual credit to exchequer of USA.

Dollar are the uniform measurement standard, on which all currencies of developed countries are equaled. In practice all participants of the international payments continue to be guided by dollar. The reason it is the need of international exchange for a uniform universal settlement means, диктуемая by growing unity of a commodity production in world facilities. Effectively to satisfy this need for existing conditions the national currency of country can only which posesses a leading role in world facilities, and USA answer these requests.

The modifications of a rate of dollar attract deep consequences both for USA, and for other countries. The increase of its rate rather reduces volume of the export proceeds in dollars, quite often entail more significant, than modification of a currency rate, falling of the world prices, especially on raw material. Opposite, the decrease of a rate of dollar is a high-power means promoting growth of the American export and оттеснению of the competitors of USA in the external markets. Import in USA owing to effect of a rise in prices simultaneously restrains. Thus, for USA of a modification of a rate of dollar by and large can bring profits and advantages.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. PRIORITIES of ECONOMIC POLICY And STRATEGIES of USA In the WORLD

 

The main purposes of the strategy. Maintenance of global access to the world markets, mineral resources, oceans and deep space, increase of a level of competitiveness and preservation of leading items in world facilities — integral elements of the strategy all without an elemination of the American administrations of second half of last century. The reaching of these purposes is formed within the framework of national economic safety and closely coordinates with it. The special attention gives to development and realization global under the form and expansion under the contents of the strategy directed on fixing of leading items in political, economic and technological orbs. In this connection economic strategy of USA closely coordinates with problems in the field of defensive and external policy. For want of it the the militarian -political orb of safety is considered as priority. A support on a military force — main direction of policy of USA on international arena. On their share(long) it is necessary 1/3 military costs in the world. They make more than 40 % of world(global) volume of arms. The idea of the military superiority strongly has taken roots in consciousness of the Americans.

The administration of USA sees main threat to safety in violation of the world(global) order ensuring prosperity of the American nation. In this connection the purpose of the strategy is the maintaining «of an exceeding American force ». The military prevalence of USA guarantees political stability for economic interdependence. Within the framework of the comprehensive approach to a solution of problems of economic safety of country and with the purposes of solidifying the mechanism of interdepartmental coordination of policy in this area in the beginning of 1993 in USA National economic advice was created to which the professional means attached led by the assistant of the president on economic policy. In modern conditions the economic strategy tries to synthesize in itself various problems and interests of a national, regional and local character.

Directions of economic policy. The main place in economic policy takes inducing structural reorganization of economy because of of reachings of a new stage НТП. Alongside with modernizing of an industrial potential of traditional branches the fast development of the newest branches is stimulated. The assistance appears to development to the most competitive sectors of economy of USA, first of all in an orb of production of information engineering, computers and electronic equipment, and also information and financial services.

Effective means in this area are a modification of taxation and amortisation policy, issue of the grants and guaranteed loans, tutoring of a labour. The direct and indirect methods (last are used predominate). For assistance to structural reorganization in USA is annually spent 100-200 bill. dollars.

Role of the state. The American federal administration is the most high-power organization in the world. Than it the budget is more THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT of any other country behind an elemination of Peoples REPUBLIC of CHINA, Japan and Germanium. The state incurs a significant part of costs on realization of RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT — 46,4 %, more, than in other leading industrial countries, behind an elemination of France. It finances more halves of fundamental researches, practically completely — creation of the most complicated and expensive installations of a fundamental science. The share of expenditures on public account in public health services (13,4 %) is high.

The state organs render support to private concerns in solidifying of competitiveness. The major priority declares accelerated development of civil technologies ensuring perspective of stablis economic growth raising productivity of a transactions. In 80-90-е years the measures of indirect regulation Scientific and technical progress were undertaken: the tax grants for firms extending scientific researches and development were entered the tax rates for the capital are reduced, terms of amortization for the scientific equipment are reduced, the tax privileges for the industrial investments in a university science are stipulated.

The important significance is given to concentration and centralization of the capital, that is called to promote an amplification of international competitiveness TNC. Stimulating effect on processes of concentration of production render the state military orders supposing guaranteed sales of production.

The pitches on removal of legislative restrictions hindering an amplification of concentration in the field of export-import transactions were undertaken. Per 80 years administration and congress in essence cancelled many positions of Antitrust acts, which and earlier did not contain in details adjustable requests.

Directions of external economic policy. Being by the largest exporter of the capital in the form of the direct investments, USA creations of a necessary investment climate for the corporations abroad actively achieve, rendering them comprehensive support, including military pressure. The main gains in this area are directed on creation of a liberal investment system for the American investors and guard of their property.

The assistance to export of the private capital appears through state corporation of the private investments abroad (OPIC). She grantives the investment warranties, realizes direct financing, carries out(conducts) preparatory work on a realization of the foreign investment projects. The financial arrangements of granting of extra means have a preferential character. A new direction became the extension of activity OPIC on Central and East Europe, and also on countries of CIS. Carrying out policy of inducing of export of capital, USA is undertaken by measures on creation of the mechanism of a guard of the investments, in which the important place is allocated to the two-sided and multilateral agreements. Since 80 years the tendency to cooperation American TNC with the local capital has amplified. Since 1977 about half of American direct investments are carried out in the form of the mixed enterprises with the local partners.

For the foreign direct investments in USA the national mode established. Officially they limit only proceeding from interests of national safety in a number of branches obtaining and manufacturing industry, including air, ship-building, in nuclear power, marine navigation, air transport, broadcasting and space communications. In these cases the most favoured nation treatment is distributed to the foreign investors. The simultaneously American administration has strengthened observation and monitoring above processes of inflow and operation of the foreign capital. In this connection the number of the acts was accepted.

By the important means of assistance of foreign activity of the American companies the programs of the economic help of USA to the foreign states act. The agreements on granting the help quite often are determined by the obligations of the countries — recepients to create an investment climate for activity of the American capital, to guarantee it against nationalization. The single-error corrections to the laws on the help to the foreign states are accepted which authorized the president to terminate the economic help to the countries nationalized property of the American companies or the citizens and not granting or which have not arranged on indemnification. They authorized also representatives of USA to international organizations to act against granting the multilateral help to those countries, which экспроприировали the American property.

In an orb of constant attention of administration there are foreign trade items of country. In the field of foreign trade the dual rate directed on maintenance of free trade in the world and a guard of the market is carried out. The administration protects interests of separate social stratums and groups from excessive foreign influence, taking into account sights of the supporters of the consignment. The scales of protectionism in USA are rather significant. In number of the goods taxed with the high customs duties, the vegetables and products from them enter a wear, footwear, tobacco and tobacco items. Especially force the damage is put to export of production of a manufacturing industry from less developed countries. The protectionist policy is carried out on a selective basis.

Concerning a lot of countries, which rate is objectionable, the policy of the interdiction of economic ties is carried out. In countries, concerning which the trade interdictions are carried out, the charges in terrorism or violation on non-distribution, violation of the rights of the person are put forward. The partial practice of the interdictions or threat of their application per 90 years was distributed to countries totalling almost 2/3 population of a planet. They included measures from reduction of the help before blocking the bank accounts and rupture of communications.

The import policy reflects structural shifts in economy and promotes their realization. Usually higher penetration of import is marked in less perspective branches, that allows to reduce production costs at the expense of use of cheaper import goods.

The ruling circles widely use the slogan «of «free trade», as though symbolizing an accuracy to ideals of the American capitalism. It constantly is present at performance of all presidents. The rate on free trade directly coordinated with preservation and extension of the guaranteed access to a resource potential of the Earth, with a main strategic problem of maintenance of the American lead in the world. That there does not correspond to interests of USA, is named as barbarity, backwardness, etc.

The state regulation of foreign trade first of all is directed on boosting of export. Such approach explains that the export as a whole number of countries acts by the important factor of their growth, especially in наукоемких and agricultural productions. Despite of a rather modest role of export in internal production (7-11 %), it(he) ensures more thirds of magnification THE INTERNAL GROSS PRODUCT of country.

The main role in a system of state inducing of export belongs to an Eximbank (EIB), which issues and guarantees the export credits, carries out the programs of preferential intermediate term crediting, makes inventory of the bills of private business banks with the purpose of lowering the interest rate under their export credits, issues joint with banking businesses the credits at a rate of 50 % of their general sum. The assistance to export is carried out also with the help of state financing of deliveries under the programs of the help. Passes it through «the connected help ».

The maintaining of export activity is carried out at a regional level, level of staffs(states), and also large cities. The local government bodies grantive the loans and credits, realize(be carried out) issue of the bonds, warranting of the loans, tax discounts and other stimulus. In country 1300 enterprise zones are created more than.

On international arena to solidifying of export items American TNC the assistance of liberalization of international trade is, including within the framework of support of institutes of world and regional, international economic complementation and maintenance of leading items in them.

Regional priorities. In external economic policy began to be exhibited frankly Northern American and Silent ocean region. Countries of Northern and Southern America, Тихоокеанского of region are considered as the priority regional markets. In foreign trade there was a diminution of a share of the West-European countries, Australia, Southern African Republic and magnification of densities of Canada, Mexico, and also less developed countries Asian — Silent ocean of region.

The trade attitudes of USA and new industrial of countries — one from the most dynamical links of world economic relations. It is called by features of distribution natural both labour forces and conditions of their operation, directedness of socio economic policy of countries of region. The use of these factors and conditions ensures American TNC deriving of higher profits, than in other regions.

In 1995 of country Asian — Silent ocean of region to surpass on volume of the American direct investments Latin America. The largest volumes concentrated in Japan, Australia, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA, Singapore. In this region placed about 100 thousand with the American military men, develop one their most powerful American fleet.

The largest trade partners are Canada, Mexico, Japan, Britain, Germanium, PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA. Russian Federation takes a minor place in the volume of business of USA — 0,5 %.

Regional economic integration. Till 90 years of USA decided foreign trade and external economic problems at a double-side level, and also within the framework of interstate organizations. They did not link themselves by membership in national economic groupings.

In the beginning 90 years a lot of measures, including the heavily negotiations which have prepared soil for development and acceptance, which has followed in 1993, tripartite Northern American of the agreement for free trade — NAFTA was conducted. In USA expect, that the creation on continent of the general market will reduce in activation of business activity, useful increase of jobs, increase of rates of economic growth. To bear in Mexico of productions, which due to application of a cheap labour allow Northern American of production more effectively to compete to the goods from Japan, Western Europe and Southeast Asia. The free inflow concerning the simple goods in USA from Mexico affects material intensive and labour-consuming industries, forcing to upgrade them or to switch resources to more complicated production.

The formation Northern American of the general market opens new horizons of economic interaction of USA and Canada with countries of Latin America. The plans of connection to NAFTA Chile, and then and other countries are discussed. In December, 1994 the leaders 34 countries of America have accepted the obligation about creation by 2005 all american о of the trade market.

The economic situation of USA in the world the next decades largely will be determined by a character integration of processes, in which their leading partners are involved not only USA, but also all.

In an internal orb the American administration as a key to revival of economy considered conditioning, for want of which the businessmen would promote magnification of jobs, amplification of business activity. With this purpose the programs of large-scale public work& to the businessmen were extended, the tax discounts are given.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE CONCLUSION

 

In an extremity of work we shall consider shortly we shall consider international relations between USA and Russia. On stretch of long years of economic ties between Russia and USA were advanced extremely poorly, for they were hindered with political and legal restrictions. The certain shifts have taken place only in first half 70 yy., when the the agreement -legal basis(on the basis of) for development of the two-sided economic attitudes(relations) between USSR and USA was created. The agreements on trade providing mutual application of a mode of the greatest preference, settlement of accounts on land- leasing, business deals etc. were signed

But also after that the normalization of the attitudes has not occured. In 1974 y. The congress of USA has approved of the administration bill of trade reform with a number of single-error corrections, from which the single-error correction of the Jackson — Wenica was main. According to this single-error correction public credits and the credit warranties to our country were prohibited. The years of the mutual sanctions, interdictions, embargo have begun.

Russia has inherited from USSR all complexities in economic contacts from USA. Until now between countries there is no official trade agreement, the restrictions on trade financing are not cancelled. The customs tariffs are higher the goods of potential russian export, than on the goods of other countries.

Nevertheless it is possible to mark, that the certain activation of economic ties of Russia — USA has taken place. The American export to Russia has extended a little. But mainly trade forms of economic ties have quickened.

The perspectives of development of cooperation between Russia and USA depend not only on the Americans. It is necessary sharply to improve an investment climate in Russia, in particular, to achieve removal of bureaucracy decision making, to liquidate constants organizational not the coordination, to offer to the American companies and banks normal on world norms of a condition of operations, and russian partners — to become reliable, precise, honour and business.

It would be desirable to mark, that the recent meeting of the presidents Vladimir Putin and George Bush has demonstrated growth and development of the Russian-American attitudes.

The tragical events of September 11 and resolute support by the president Путиным of the war, which has followed behind them, against terrorisms have added strongest impulse to our attitudes.

Though is still there are differences general at our two states more, than distinctions. It was confirmed also by the last events concerning wars in Iraq, when Russia has taken items opposite USA. In too time, even these differences have not divided us. It seems extremely important, that our countries still link the strong attitudes permitting to overcome a differences in separate areas.

The extending economic ties between Russia and USA promote approach « of a new day » in the Russian-American attitudes. The government of USA is rigidly going to conduct work with government of Russia and business circles of both countries on the extension of areas of mutual economic interests. These general interests will serve to further solidifying of our cooperation on a broad circle of problems, which will allow together to decide not only problem of today, but also those problems, with which we still should confront in new century.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE LITERATURE

 

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  9. USA in a system of global economic cooperations — M.: institute of a scientific information on public sciences.
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