Grammar

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062615 1644 Grammar1 GrammarI. Choose the correct variant

 

1. Could you close the window please

2. We are going for a walk. You can go with us.

3. It was a through train so we didn’t have to change trains.

4. You’d better don’t go out alone at night

5. A vegetarian is someone who doesn’t eat meat

6. It was raining when Kate was waiting for the bus.

7. They were supposed to stay with us till Monday

8. I will give you my address when I find somewhere to live.

9. We don’t know anything about car engines

10. I neither like the film nor the novel it’s based on

11. Is the baby still crying?

12. You needn’t say anything else.

13. You needn’t speak to Mike.

14. It’s less dangerous to cross the river in this place than over there.

15. I wonder when he comes back tomorrow.

 

II. Open the brackets, using the verbs in the correct tenses.

The Car of the Future

A pessimist is a person who always expects bad things to happen. Pessimists think that today’s cars are in trouble because they use too much gas. They say the car of the future will be much, much smaller. The car of tomorrow will have no heater and no air conditioning. It will have no radio and no lights. Tomorrow’s car will be an open air car with no doors and windows. It won’t need a pollution control system because it won’t use gas. In fact drivers will push this new car with their feet. Very few people will be killed in accidents because the top speed will be five miles per hour. However, pessimists warn us not to ask for pretty colors, because the car will come in grey only.

Optimists are sure that the future will be happy. They think that car companies soon will solve all our problems by producing the Supercar. Tomorrow’s car will be bigger, faster and more comfortable than before. The Supercar will have four rooms, color TV, running water, heat, air conditioning and a swimming pool. Large families will travel on long trips in complete comfort. If gas is in short supply, the Supercar will run on water. Finally, optimists promise that the car of the future will come in any color, as long as the color is grey.

 

 

III Translate into English, using the appropriate forms of pronouns.

 

1. He is cold.2. They said this news to us yesterday.3. Tell me about London. 4. They are never at home.5. Call him to the phone.6. This is not his bag it’s hers. 7. Where are my glasses? Has anybody seen them? 8. He will show me his house and I’ll show him mine.9. This butterfly looks like flower. Aren’t its wings wonderful?

IV. Translate into English, using the appropriate tenses.

 

  1. If you work properly you’ll pass exam.
  2. I don’t understand what these people are speaking about because I don’t know English.
  3. Did your brother have to repair his bike himself?
  4. Do you know Ann’s phone?-I don’t remember exactly, but I’ll look for it in my notebook.
  5. I was sitting by the window when I heard the noise.
  6. We haven’t seen Pete this week, but we saw him a couple of weeks ago.
  7. We have been walking along the road for two hours, when we saw the house.
  8. Don’t be late. The concert starts at ten.
  9. Tomorrow they will be working in the garden/
  10. After he had read all the letters, he went to the kitchen to make tea.

 

II Reading

Read the text and do the assignments after it.

Babylonia

1. In western Asia there are two big rivers that flow southward into the Persian Gulf. They are the Tigris and the Euphrates. Before they reach the sea they run through a large fertile plain. This plain came to be Babylonia.

The region is now the country of Iraq. It is sometimes called Mesopotamia. This name comes from Greek word s meaning «land between rivers». As the map shows, Mesopotamia is part of a great «new moon» of rich land often spoken as the Fertile Crescent.

2. Babylonia was one of the cradles of civilization. Much of what we have and do today can be traced back to the people who lived there in ancient times. Writing, for instance, began there.

Some 5,000 years ago, while the rulers of Egypt were building their pyramids, the Sumerians lived in the land of two rivers. They had lived there for centuries. The Sumerians were builders, too. They had cities with good streets and with sewers. But they had no stone for building. They used brick instead. Their buildings all crumbled away long ago.

3. These early people were good farmers. They drew water from the rivers to irrigate their farms. They dug big canals to carry the water. On their farms they raised barley and wheat. They had oxen to help them plough their fields.

On their canals and rivers the Sumerians used boats. For travel and carrying loads on land they used carts and chariots, perhaps they also had horses.

4. The Sumerians could write. They wrote with pointed sticks on soft clay tablets. The sticks made shaped marks on the clay. Writing done in this way is called cuneiform. «Cuneiform» means «wedge-shaped». This writing was used mostly for keeping records of such things as the sale of land and livestock

The Sumerians also knew a great deal about using numbers, but often they counted by sixties rather than by hundreds as we do. The 60 minutes in an hour can be traced back to this old way of counting.

5. from time to time tribes from the desert round about forced their way into the Land of the Two Rivers. About 3,700 years ago a leader from one of these tribes became the ruler of the land. His name was Hammurabi. Hammurabi turned out to be a wise ruler. He had the laws of the land gathered together and carved on a great stone tablet. They were written in cuneiform. The tablet can still be read. There were 282 laws in the Code of Hammurabi.

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6. Hammurabi made the city of Babylon his capital. His people were called Babylonians. Under him the Babylonians became great traders. They sent caravans far and wide on trading expeditions. In their trading they used lumps of silver as money. Bills for the goods were written in cuneiform. So were all sorts of business papers. Many of these had envelopes of clay around them. Every businessman had a seal- a little cylinder of stone with a picture carved on it. He signed a paper by rolling his seal across the wet clay. Envelopes were marked in the same way. Some of the seals were true works of art.

7. The Babylonians built buildings of brick, just as earlier people in the Land of the Two Rivers had done. Their buildings did not last, but we know that the builders used arches.

After Hammurabi, a people from mountains to the north, the Kassites, poured into Babylonia

They used horses in their fighting. The invaders did not bring many new ideas. They learned and followed the Babylonian ways of living.

8. Long before Hammurabi’s time a little kingdom had grown up to the north on the Tigris. It was Assur. Several hundred years after Hammurabi the people of Assur, who were called the Assyrians, conquered Babylonia and much land round about. They built up a strong empire.

The Assyrians were fighters. Their big armies had weapons of iron. They had war Chariots drawn by horses. They had battering rams, too. These were useful in knocking down the walls of the cities.

9. The Assyrians were also great builders. Their capital Nineveh, which was to the north of Babylon The walls of Nineveh stretched for more than three мiles along the Tigris. Within the walls there were many beautiful buildings. They were decorated with sculptures, some of which we can still see.

The earliest library anyone knows about was built up by an emperor of Assyria. More than 20,000 clay tablets have been found in the ruins of this library.

In spite of their strong armies, the Assyrians could not hold their empire. Babylonia was conquered by a dessert tribe, the Chaldoans.

 

 

 

I. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

 

1)Вавилон был одной из колыбелей цивилизации.2)Они копали большие каналы, чтобы добыть воду. 3) Они отправляли караваны в торговые експедиции.4) У каждого бизнесмена был маленький каменный цилиндр с картинкой, вырезанной на нем. 5)Завоеватели не принесли много идей.

 

II. Find the following words in the text and translate them into Russian.

 

To carry- нести; They dug big canals to carry the water. Они копали большие каналы, чтобы носить воду. a record-запись, This writing was used mostly for keeping records of such things as the sale of land and livestock.Эти надписи были использованы для записи таких вещей, как продажа земли и прирост населения; a ruler- правитель; About 3,700 years ago a leader from one of these tribes became the ruler of the land.Около 3.700 лет назад лидер одного из таких племен стал правителем земли. to bring- приносить; The invaders did not bring many new ideas.Завоеватели не принесли много новых идей. to roll-катить, катиться; He signed a paper by rolling his seal across the wet clay.Он подписывал документ, катая свою печать по мокрой глине.a part-часть As the map shows, Mesopotamia is part of a great «new moon» of rich land .Как показывают карты Месопотамия – это часть великого «новой луны» плодородных земель.

 

III. Translate the following pairs of sentences into Russian and say what part of speech the underlined words belong to.

 

1)Babylonians sent caravans on trading expeditions. Вавилоняне отправляли караваны в торговые экспедиции. Trading-adjective ( прил.). In their trading they used lumps of silver as money. В своих торговле, они использовали кусочки серебра в качестве денег. Trading-noun ( сущ.).2) The name Mesopotamia comes from the Greek words meaning «land between rivers». Имя Месопотамия пришло из греческого и означает « земля меж рек». Land- noun ( сущ.). They had to land at Bombay. Они вынуждены были причалить в Бомбее. Land- verb ( глагол). 3) All sorts of business papers were written in cuneiform.Все деловые бумаги были написаны клинописью. Business- adjective ( прил.). His business is farming. Его бизнес- фермерство. Business-noun ( сущ.). 4) Some of the seals were works of art.Некоторые печати были произведением искусства. Work- noun ( сущ.). He works with my sister. Он работает с моей сестрой. Work- verb ( глагол).

 

IV. Answer the questions about the text.

 

  1. The main rivers in western Asia are the Tigris and the Euphrates.
  2. The name Mesopotamia comes from the Greek words meaning «land between rivers».
  3. Yes, it was. It was one of the cradles of civilization.
  4. The Sumerians lived in the Land of the Two Rivers.
  5. They wrote with pointed sticks on soft clay tablets.
  6. About 3,700 years ago a leader from one of these tribes became the ruler of the land. His name was Hammurabi.
  7. He gathered together the laws of the land and carved on a great stone tablet. The were 282 laws.
  8. The people of Assur, who were called the Assyrians, conquered Babylonia.
  9. They were the great builders and built a lot of beautiful buildings.
  10. Babylonia was conquered by a desert tribe the Chaldoans.

 

V. Translate part 6 and 9 in writing.

6. Хамураби сделал Вавилон своей столицей. Его люди стали называться вавилоняне. При нем вавилоняне стали великими торговцами. Они отправляли караваны в торговые экспедиции. В своих торговле, они использовали кусочки серебра в качестве денег. Счета за товары писались клинописью. Такими же были все деловые документы. У многих из них были глиняные конверты. Каждый бизнесмен имел печать-маленький каменный цилиндр с картинкой выгравированной на нем. Он подписывал документ, катая свою печать по мокрой глине. Конверты запечатывались таким же образом. Некоторые печати были произведением искусства.

 

9. Ассирийцы были также великими строителями. Их столица была Ниневех, располагающаяся к северу от Вавилона. Стены Ниневех протягивались более чем на три мили вдоль Тигриса. Вдоль стен было много красивых зданий. Они были украшены скульптурами, некоторые из которых можно увидеть до сих пор.

Первая известная человечеству библиотека была построена императором Ассирии. Более чем 20.000 глиняных табличек были найдены в руинах библиотеки.

Несмотря на сильную армию, ассирийцы не смогли сохранить свою империю.

Вавилон был завоеван племенем из пустыни Халдонянами.

 

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