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Практикум английского языка

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091513 0135 1 Практикум английского языкаGRAMMAR

Item 1. Kinds of Sentences. In English there are the following kinds of sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory. Declarative sentences may be affirmative or negative.

He arrived yesterday. Mary does not understand the rule.

Item 2. Word Order. In declarative sentences the subject usually comes before the predicate. This word order is called direct.

I shall do this translation.

Lily is absent from classes.

Item 3. The Principal Parts of the Sentence. The subject and the predicate are the principal parts of the sentence.

The girl skates well.

The girl is the subject, skates is the predicate of the sentence.

Item 4. Proper and Common Nouns. According to their meaning all nouns can be divided into two groups — proper nouns (e.g. Nelly, Moscow, Shakespeare) and common nouns. Common nouns fall into countables (e.g. a book, a bird) and uncountables. Uncountable nouns may be abstract (e.g. information, success, time), material (e.g. water, gold, paper) and collective (e.g. a family, people, the police).

Item 5. The Subject. The subject of the sentence is usually expressed by a noun, a pronoun, a numeral, an infinitive or a gerund.

The man is forty.

She reads very quickly.

Sixty is a numeral.

Item 6. The Predicate. The predicate may be simple or compound. The simple verbal predicate is expressed by a finite verb, or a phraseological unit.

Jane came to the office in time. We had breakfast at nine o’clock.

The compound predicate may be nominal and verbal. The compound nominal predicate consists of a link verb and a predicative, which is also called the nominal part of the compound nominal predicate. The most common link verb is to be. There may be other link verbs such as to get, to turn, to feel, to remain, to keep, etc.

The predicative may be expressed by a noun, an adjective, a numeral, a pronoun, etc.

She is a teacher.

The leaves became (turned) yellow in autumn.

He felt bad.

The boy kept silent.

He was the first.

This flat is ours.

The compound verbal predicate is expressed in two ways:

1) by a modal verb and an infinitive.

She must come in time.

2) by a finite verb and an infinitive or a gerund. He began to translate the text. The child stopped crying.

 

Item 7. The Verb «to be» as a Notional Verb. The verb to be may be used as the simple verbal predicate. In such sentences an adverbial modifier of place is usually used.

I am at home.

Item 8. Interrogative Sentences. Interrogative sentences include the four types of questions: general, special, alternative and disjunctive.

Item 9. General Questions. General questions are usually formed by placing part of the predicate, that is the auxiliary, link or modal verb, before the subject.

Do you live in Moscow?

Is it late?

Can he play the piano?

This word order is called indirect or inverted.

General questions require yes or no answers.

General questions may be affirmative or negative. Negative general questions usually express astonishment or doubt, they are translated into Russian paзвe, неужели.

Isn’t it Mr Baxter? Неужели это мистер Бакстер?

Don’t you see it? Разве вы не видите этого?

Item 10. The Indefinite Article. In English there are two articles: the indefinite article and the definite article.

The indefinite article has originated from the numeral one, therefore it can never be used with plural nouns. It has the forms a [ei] and an [ n]. The spelling and the pronunciation of the indefinite article depend on the initial sound of the next word. It is usually unstressed in a sentence and reduced, e.g. a lesson [ ‘lesn], an apple [ ].

The indefinite article is used only before countable nouns in the singular.

The indefinite article shows that the object is one of a class. In this case it means какой-то, некий, один.

A girl came up to the lecturer. Девушка (какая-то) подошла к лектору.

There is a letter for you. Для вас есть (какое-то) письмо.

 

Item 11. Cardinal Numerals. Numerals may be cardinal or ordinal. Cardinal numerals indicate numbers: one, fourteen, twenty, etc.

Cardinal numerals from 13 to 19 are formed by adding the suffix -teen, such numerals have two equal stresses: ‘thirteen, ‘nine’teen, ‘fif’teen. The numerals 20, 30, etc. are formed by the suffix -ty: twenty, forty, etc.

 

Item 12. Alternative Questions. Alternative questions indicate choice, therefore the conjunction or is used in them. They consist of two interrogative parts, the first is an ordinary general question, the second is an elliptical question. They may be asked about any part of the sentence. They usually require a full answer.

— Does the train start at five or at six? — It starts at six.

Item 13. Imperative Sentences. Imperative sentences may express commands, requests, invitations, advice, warnings, which are differentiated through intonation. Imperative sentences are formed by the infinitive of a verb without the particle to.

— Come here!

 

In negative imperative sentences the auxiliary do is used. Don’t be late, please!

When the imperative sentence refers to the first person the verb let followed by me or us is used.

Let me go there, please! Let us (Let’s) have dinner now!

The negative forms are:

Let’s not go there! or: Don’t let’s go there!

Item 14. The Verb «to have» as a Notional Verb. When the verb to have is used as a notional verb, it usually denotes possession, family relationship, illness.

My parents have a house in the country.

He has two sisters.

I have a headache.

The interrogative and negative forms may be formed differently. In older English the auxiliary verb do was generally not used in such cases.

Have you a sister?

I haven’t any English textbooks.

Now these forms are rarely used, mostly in formal style or in written English.

In informal style the forms with the auxiliary do or with the verb get are common.

— Do you have a daughter or a son? — I don’t have any.

— I haven’t got a car. I’ve got a bicycle. — Have you got a new bicycle? — Yes, I have.

In American English the forms with the auxiliary verb do are used in all styles.

Item 15. The Secondary Parts of the Sentence. The secondary parts of the sentence are the following: an object (direct, indirect, prepositional), an attribute and an adverbial modifier (of place, time, manner, degree, etc.).

Give me your notebook, (an indirect object, a direct object)

The boy went to the theatre with his sister, (a prepositional object)

 

It was a cold gloomy morning. (attributes)

The train arrived at the station in time. (an adverbial modifier of place, of time)

 

Item 16. Special Questions. Special questions begin with interrogative pronouns and adverbs (who, whose, which, what, why, where, when, how, how much, how long, etc.). They may be asked about any part of the sentence.

Where does he live?

What do you know about the history of London?

Who is he?

The word order in special questions is indirect, but if the question is asked about the subject of the sentence, or about the attribute to the subject the word order is direct, as in a statement.

Who wrote the article?

Which of you will go there?

Whose brother has got a car?

Such special questions require short answers which are usually pronounced with the falling tone on the subject.

— ‘Who ‘wrote the .article? — ‘She did.

— «Which of you will ‘do it? — ‘I will.

— «Whose «brother has ‘got a.bicycle? — ‘Mary’s .brother ,has.

Item 17. The Number of Nouns. Nouns have two numbers:

the singular and the plural. The plural is formed by adding the inflexion -(e)s to the stem of the noun. It may be read differently depending on the final sound of the noun:

step — steps [s] — after voiceless consonants

bag — bags [z]

plan — plans [z] after voiced consonants and vowels

091513 0135 2 Практикум английского языкаday — days [z]

091513 0135 3 Практикум английского языкаplace — places [iz]

bench — benches [iz] — after sibilants

page — pages [iz]

Item 18. Irregular Plural Forms. In some nouns the final voiceless consonants are changed into corresponding voiced consonants before the -(e)s inflexion, e.g. [f] — [vz] (in spelling -f(e) is changed into -ves: life — lives, wife — wives, leaf — leaves. But: roof — roofs [is], cliff — cliffs [fs], chief-chiefs [fs], proof — proofs [fs]. [q] — [z]: mouth — mouths [z], path — paths [z], bath — baths [z]. But: death — deaths [qs], monthmonths [qs], cloth — cloths [qs]. [s] — [ziz]: house — houses [ziz].

The following nouns form the plural by changing the root vowel or by adding the inflexion -en, e.g. man — men, foot — feet, woman — women, tooth — teeth, mouse — mice, goose — geese, child — children, ox — oxen.

Some nouns borrowed from foreign languages have foreign plurals, e.g. formula (Latin) — formulae (or formulas), curriculum (Latin) — curricula, medium (Latin) — media (in the mass media), basis (Greek) — bases, crisis (Greek) — crises, criterion (Greek) — criteria.

Item 19. Cases of Nouns. English nouns have two cases: the common case and the possessive case.

Nouns in the common case have no inflexions. Nouns in the possessive case are formed by adding the apostrophe followed by s if the noun is in the singular, e.g. my brother’s camera, the boy’s hat. With plural nouns the apostrophe follows the plural form, and the inflexion s is added only if this plural noun does not end in -s, e.g. boys’ bicycles, men’s socks, children’s rooms.

In English the possessive case is mostly used with nouns denoting human beings, e.g. a girl’s dress, Byron’s poems. It may also be used with nouns denoting time and distance, e.g. a day’s wait. an hour’s discussion, yesterday’s conference, a mile’s distance.

The ‘s inflexion is read in the same way as the plural ending of nouns.

Item 20. The Definite Article. The definite article has the form of the [i:]. In speech it is usually unstressed and reduced, it is pronounced [i:] before vowels and [ ] before consonants, e.g. the egg [i e ], the music [ ‘mju:zik].

The definite article originated from an old English demonstrative pronoun. It can be used with uncountable nouns and with countable nouns in the singular and in the plural.

The definite article is used when we are talking about particular things, that is if both the speaker and the hearer know exactly which object is meant.

I’ve lost the umbrella.

Item 21. The Definite Article with Proper Nouns. Proper nouns are usually used without articles.

Oscar Wilde wrote several comedies.

If a proper noun is used in the possessive case no article is used.

Eliza went to Higgins’ mother.

 

The definite article may be used before the names of persons in the plural if they denote a whole family.

The Smiths live next door.

Item 22. Disjunctive Questions consist of two parts, the first part is a statement and the second one is a short general question. The second part is usually formed by the repetition of the auxiliary verb and the subject of the statement and is asked for confirmation of the truth of the statement. It is sometimes called the tag (or tail) question. If the statement is positive, the tag question is negative, if the question is negative the tag question is positive.

He is here, isn’t he?

You don’t know the rule. do you?

The answers, to these questions are given to the meaning rather than to the grammatical form of the question.

— He is here, isn’t he? — Yes, he is. (a confirmation) — No, he isn’t, (a negation)

— You don’t know the rule, do you? — No, I don’t. (a confirmation) — Yes, I do. (a negation)

Item 23. Prepositions. The preposition is a form word. It is used with a noun or pronoun to show its relation to some other word in the sentence.

According to their meaning prepositions may be divided into several groups: prepositions of place, of time, of direction, etc.

Item 24. Prepositions of Place. Here are some common expressions in which prepositions indicate place.

on the floor на полу, in the cup в чашке, at the door y двери, at school в школе, under the tree по деревом, above the roof над крышей, выше крыши, over the table над столом, in front of the house перед домом, behind the building за зданием, below the third floor ниже четвертого этажа, near the bench около скамейки, across the street через дорогу.

Item 25. Prepositions of Direction. In the following expressions prepositions indicate direction or movement to some place.

to the window к окну, into the water в воду, to school в школу, from hospital (school) из больницы (школы), out of the building из здания, away from the building в направлении от, прочь от здания, towards the window к окну.

Item 26. Prepositions of Time. The prepositions indicating time in Russian may correspond to several prepositions in English. Here are some common examples.

on Sunday в воскресенье, on the following day на следующий день, on May Day в день Первого мая, in March в марте, in the months that followed в следующие месяцы, in the nineteenth century в девятнадцатом столетии, at seven o’clock, at 7 a.m.в семь часов (утра), at noon в полдень, at the weekend b KOHue HeaeJiH, at that time b to BpeMa, for a fortnight Ha p,se HeaeJin, b TeueHHe Asyx HeaeJib, (he spoke) during the meeting na co6paHHH, bo BpeMa coQpaHHa, before the war ^o bohhu, (he slept) until midnight flo noJiyHO^H, after classes nocJie aaHa-thh, before dawn fl0 paccaeTa, since morning c yrpa, in time (= with enough time to spare, not late), on time (= at exactly the right time) вовремя

 

Item 27. Adverbs. According to their meaning adverbs may fall into several groups: adverbs of time (now, soon, always, often, never, usually, today, etc.), of place (here, there, outside, upstairs, etc.), of manner (well, badly, quickly, hard, etc.), of degree (very, too, almost, quite, etc.).

Item 28. Place of Adverbs in the Sentence. Adverbs are usually placed before adjectives, other adverbs, and past participles.

It was rather late.

He is very well educated.

The adverbs never, often, always, seldom, sometimes, etc. usually precede the predicate. If the predicate is in a compound tense form the adverb is placed after the first auxiliary verb, the link verb or the modal verb.

She always gets up at seven.

I have often done that.

They will soon go there.

They are never late.

He can often be seen in the club.

An adverb of place usually precedes an adverb of time if they go together.

He went there yesterday.

Item 29. Forms of Verbs. English verbs have three basic forms: the infinitive, the past indefinite and the past participle, e.g. to see — saw — seen.

Item 30. Reported Speech. To report what somebody has said one can either quote his exact words or use indirect or reported speech.

When direct speech is converted into reported speech some changes are introduced.

Orders, requests, advice are reported by using an infinitive.

The mother tells her daughter: «Give me the hat.» — The mother tells her daughter to give her the hat.

 

When questions are converted into reported speech, their word order is changed and it becomes direct.

She asks, «Are you ill?» — She asks if he is ill. He asks, «Do you want to help me?» — He asks if she wants to help him.

She asks, «When do you get up?» — She asks when he gets up.

In the examples cited above the verb in the principal clause is in the present tense, thus the tenses in the reported sentence remain unchanged.

Item 31. Exclamatory Sentences. Exclamatory sentences may-.he of two types: a) sentences which have a special structure and b) any kind of sentence which may become emotional expressing joy, grief, astonishment, etc.

The exclamatory sentences of the first type usually begin withan exclamatory word (what or how). The emphasized word follows the exclamatory word. The exclamatory what refers to a noun, the exclamatory how — to an adjective, an adverb or a verb.

What a nice present it is!

How well she sings!

How awful the weather is!

 

The exclamatory sentences of the second type become exclamatory when they are pronounced with a definite intonation, that is with the widened or narrowed range.

Item 32. The Construction «there is/are». The construction there is/are is used when it is necessary to say that something exists (or does not exist).

There is a timetable on the wall.

There is some milk in the glass.

There are flowers in the vase.

Item 33. Ordinal Numerals. Ordinal numerals denote the order of persons or things.

Most of the ordinal numerals are formed by means of the suffix -th
(fourth, tenth, twelfth, fifteenth, etc.), except first, second, third.

Ordinal numerals are usually used with the definite article, e.g. the first, the fifth, etc.

GRAMMAR

Item 34. Regular and Irregular Verbs. All verbs may be divided into regular and irregular according to the way they form the past tense and the past participle.

Regular verbs form the past tense and the past participle by means of the inflexion -ed, read as [d], [t], or [id], e.g.:

091513 0135 4 Практикум английского языкаto play — played — played

d

to learn — learned — learned

 

to ask — asked — asked [t]

to want — wanted — wanted [id]

Irregular verbs do not follow the general rule in the formation of these forms. They should be memorised, e.g.:

to tell — told — told to leave — left — left to sing — sang — sung to strike — struck — struck

Item 35. Pronouns. English pronouns fall into the following groups: personal pronouns: J, he, she, it. they, etc.; possessive pronouns: my, his, their, mine, hers, theirs; reflexive pronouns: myself, herself, etc.; reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another; demonstrative pronouns: this, that, those, etc.; interrogative pronouns: who, which, etc.; relative pronouns: who, whose, etc.; indefinite pronouns: some, any, no, somebody, everybody, etc.; e.g.:

He is young.

Everybody is at home.

Who is present?

The picture is mine.

Give me some milk.

Whose car is it?

 

Item 36. The Construction «there is/are». In sentences with the construction there is/are the subject is placed after the construction. The predicate is the verb to be.

There is a school down this street. There are quite a few books in our library on this subject.

There may also be followed by the verbs to exist, to live, to occur, to remain when the existence of something is indicated, e.g.:

There exist many wonderful folk dances in the world. There remained some milk in the jar.

Item 37. Very often the construction there is/are is used with the indefinite pronouns some, any, no, somebody, anybody, nobody, something, anything, nothing.

There is something dark lying on the floor.

There is nothing wrong with this dress. It still looks nice.

Item 38. The negative particle not is used after the construction there is/are only before any, enough, many and numerals, and also with the emphatic indefinite article.

There is not enough soup in her plate.

There are not any mistakes in her quiz.

There is not a single cloud in the sky.

 

Item 39. Remember some commonly used constructions with there is/are which are used negatively: there is no use doing smth, there is no sense doing smth. there is no need to do smth.

There is no sense going there. We’re late as it is.

There is no need to tell him this. He knows it.

Remember the construction: there is nothing like + noun which means Hem ничего лучше, чем… .

There is nothing like fresh air.

Item 40. The Use of the Pronoun «It». The personal pronoun it performs the following functions in the sentence: 1. It replaces the noun which is clear from the situation.

He showed me his new book. It is a historical novel.

2. It serves as the subject of an impersonal sentence.

It was very hot yesterday.

3. It introduces the subject of a sentence expressed by an infinitive, a gerund or a whole clause.

It is easy to do this work.

It is dangerous crossing the street with red lights on.

It is surprising that he did not take your advice.

Item 41. The Present Indefinite is used to denote actions:

1. which characterize the subject permanently, 2. which take place regularly, or 3. which are facts classed as universal truths.

She always smiles.

The trolley-bus stops at this house.

The sun rises in the East.

Item 42. The present indefinite is often used with adverbs of time or phrases showing frequency, such as: sometimes, often, usually, generally, normally, every week, twice a month, seldom, always, never, frequently, rarely and others. The one-word adverbs are placed before the predicate in simple verbal predicates and after the link-verbs in compoundnominal predicates. The phrasal adverbs are put at the end of the sentence.

They always sell fresh fruit here.

She never shops in this supermarket.

She is seldom late.

James goes to school every day including Saturday.

Item 43. The present indefinite can also be used with actions which are taking place at the moment of speech if these actions are not considered in progress.

Today he speaks much better than a week ago.

Why do you say it is not true?

Item 44. The present indefinite is also used in adverbial clauses of time and condition which indicate a future action. They are introduced by such conjunctions as if, after, before, as soon as, till. until.

If you get up early don’t forget to wake me up.

Jack will arrive as soon as he gets my cable.

Item 45. The interrogative and negative forms of the Present Indefinite in simple verbal predicates are built with the help of the auxiliary verb to do.

Do they live in Kiev? They do not live in Kiev.

Does she know Spanish? She does not know Spanish.

The short negative form is: I (we, they) don’t; he (she) doesn’t. The short affirmative forms are: I (we. they) do; he (she) does.

 

Item 46. There are some spelling rules for the Present Indefinite of some verbs. If a verb ends in -y and there is a consonant before it, then in the 3rd person singular -y is changed into i and the ending —es is added, e.g.:

to cry — he cries

If a verb ends in —s, —sh, -x, -z,ch and —o, then the ending is —es, e.g.:

to teach — he teaches

to wish — he wishes

Item 47. The Past Indefinite is used to denote actions performed in the past when the time of the action is indicated by an exact date in the past, the adverbs and adverbial phrases last year, yesterday, ago and others or by the situation.

He promised to do it last month.

I heard the news on the 2 o’clock programme.

She was very busy last week.

Item 48. The interrogative and negative forms of the Past Indefinite in simple verbal predicates are built with the help of the auxiliary verb to do in the Past Indefinite (did). The short negative form is didn’t for all persons. The short affirmative form is did for all persons.

Item 49. There are some spelling rules for the past indefinite of regular verbs. If a verb ends in -e only -d is added, e.g.:

to examine — he examined

to exercise — he exercised

If a verb ends in -y the letter is changed to i and -ed is added, e.g.:

to study — he studied to worry — he worried

If a verb ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel and the stress is on the last syllable, the consonant is doubled and the ending -ed is added (robbed, skimmed, stopped).

Item 50. The Non-Finite Forms of the Verb (the Verbals).

There are three verbals. They are the infinitive, the gerund and the participle. They are non-finite forms of the verb as they have no number or person which the finite forms of the ‘ verb always have. The verbals combine some features of a verb and some features of other parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, adverbs). They can occur in the following syntactical functions.

The infinitive can be used:

1) as the subject (coming out of use);

To do this is practically impossible.

In modern English it is used after the phrases with the anticipatory it, such as it is necessary to …. it is important to …, is easy to, etc.

It’s useless to ask him about it.

2) as a predicate;

Their task was to reach the city before dark.

3) as a part of a compound verbal predicate;

He began to do it immediately.

4) as an object;

I didn’t mean to disturb you.

5) as an attribute;

He is not a man to trifle with.

6) as an adverbial modifier. He came to help us.

The gerund in the sentence can be used mainly in the syntactical function:

1) of the subject;

Jogging in the morning makes you fit.

 

2) of a predicate;

Good eating is enjoying food.

3) of a direct object;

He likes reading detective stories.

My stocking wants mending.

4) of a prepositional object.

Jane thanked me for helping her.

The present participle in the sentence can be used in the syntactical function of an attribute.

Her smiling face bent over my little bed.

The present participle can be a part of participial phrases expressing time (sometimes introduced by the conjunctions while or when), cause or manner.

While looking at me he continued to rustle his papers.

Stopping at the gate she gave a loud cry.

Releasing one of her hands, she put it in her pocket.

The past participle can be used in the syntactical function: 1) of a predicative;

The dress was all torn.

2) of an attribute. The examined papers did not throw light upon the mystery.

Item 51. Verbal Nouns also have verb and noun characteristics. They always have the definite article and are followed by a preposition.

The founding of the city goes back to the Roman times.

Item 52. The Use of the Article with Proper Names. Generally proper names are used without any article because they indicate some person or thing which is treated as unique.

Britain is not a large country. Collins is a new teacher at our school.

When the names of people denote a family then they are used with the definite article.

The Murdochs are our new neighbours. The Tudors is a royal family that ruled England from 1485 to 1603.

The definite article is used with the names of the four geographical points: the north, the south, the east, the west, but when nouns have geographical attributes they are used without an article, e.g. Northern Ireland, Eastern Russia.

The definite article is used with the names of seas, oceans, rivers, channels, e.g. the North Sea; the English Channel; the Thames.

Remember:
the British
Isles sbut: Great Britain. Great Britain is both the name of the largest of the British Isles and the name of the country. The definite article is used with the name of the country: the United States, of America (the USA). The names of nations and nationalities are used with the definite article if the whole number of people is meant, e.g. the Welsh, the English, the Scots.

GRAMMAR

Item 53. The Future Indefinite. The future indefinite is used to denote actions which will take place in the future. It is often accompanied by the use of such adverbs and adverbial phrases as tomorrow, next week, in two weeks’ time and others.

The future indefinite is formed by means of the auxiliary verbs shall or will which are followed by the main verb. The negative form of the future indefinite is built by adding the negation not to the auxiliary verb. The interrogative form is built by putting the auxiliary verb before the subject of the sentence.

In oral speech the contracted form ‘II is used particularly when the subject of the sentence is expressed by a pronoun. The contracted forms in the negative and interrogative constructions are shan’t and won’t.

He will graduate next year.

This time tomorrow I’ll be far away.

He’ll come as soon as he can.

Item 54. In modern English shall is not normally used except in questions and so will is used in all persons. The future with will often shows promise or determination. When an action means an offer or insistence will is used. Shall can’t be used here even with the 1st person, e.g.

I will keep my promise.

There is no milk for lunch.

I’ll go to buy some (I’ll = I will; not: I shall)

These uses of will are modal. They go back to the old use of will which meant «want», «wish».

Item 55. In questions shall I and shall we are often used to ask what should be done, to denote obligation, to offer to do things for other people. In questions which have this meaning will is not used.

Shall I read now?

Shall I fetch the register from the dean’s office?

Shall I do the washing-up for you?

Shall we have lunch together?

 

Item 56. The appropriate response to Shall J…? is not Yes, you will, but: Yes, please, or No, thank you or even If you like.

Shall I come at 9? — Yes, please. (Or: If you like.)

Will you may mean a polite way of asking a person to do smth. Please can be added. The response is All right or Yes. of course or Certainly. In case of refusal the response is No, I won’t and Certainly not.

Will you bring the cups from the cupboard, please? — Yes, of course.

Item 57. To be going to is also used to indicate a future action when there is some evidence at present that it will happen. It can also show the intentions of the speaker or relate something he or she is on the point of doing.

It is going to snow.

I’m going to take a course in modern literature.

To be going to is not generally used in the main clause of conditional sentences, instead of it will or shall are preferred.

If you work hard you will never fail to achieve what you are after.

Item 58. The Future-in-the-Past. This tense form is used to express some action which was in the future from the point of view of the past. The Future-in-the-Past is formed with the help of the auxiliary verbs should and would.

The girl knew that her every move would be watched.

Item 59. The Active and the Passive Voices. When the subject of the sentence denotes the doer of the action expressed by the predicate, the verb is said to be used in the active voice.

 

My sister cooks meals in the morning.

But when the subject denotes a thing or a phenomenon which undergoes an action but does not perform it, the verb is said to be used in the passive voice.

He was brought up in a boarding house.

The Passive Voice is formed with the help of the auxiliary verb to be in the appropriate tense (present, past, future) and the Past Participle of the principal verb.

Trains are used as a means of transport. The skirt was made by a dress-maker. Breakfast will be served from 7 to 9.

Passive Voice (indefinite tense forms)


 

Present

Past

Future

affirmative interrogative negative

it is used is

it used?

it is not used

it was used was it used?

it was not used 

it will be used

will it be used?

it will not be used

 

Item 60. In English the passive voice is used much more often than in Russian because not only a direct object of the active construction can become the subject of the passive construction but also an indirect and prepositional object (when the verb of the predicate of the active construction is intransitive). So there are the following kinds of passive constructions in English:

Item 61. Passive constructions with verbs which have two direct objects: «to ask», «to answer», «to forgive», «to strike», «to excuse». In the passive construction only one (the first) of the two direct objects is normally used as the subject.

She asked him a question. — He was asked a question. He answered them nothing. — They were answered nothing. Mother forgave the little boy his trick. — The little boy was forgiven.

The man struck him a blow. — He was struck a blow.

 

The attendant excused the boy the movie fee. — The boy was excused the movie fee.

The use of the other direct object as the subject of the passive construction is hardly possible.

Item 62. Passive constructions with verbs which have two objects — direct and indirect; «to tell», «to show», «to give», «to send», «to pay», «to promise», «to offer». With these verbs two passive constructions can be formed but the passive construction with the indirect object as the subject of the passive construction is more common.

She showed me the way. — The way was shown to me. / was shown the way.

They gave us information. — Information was given to us. We were given information.

Item 63. Passive constructions with verbs which have two objects—direct and indirect: «to write», «to read», «to buy», «to sell», «to sing». With these verbs only one passive construction is actually used, that is with the direct object becoming the subject of the passive construction.

We wrote them a letter. — A letter was written to them. Mother read him a story. — A story was read to him.

Item 64. Passive constructions with the verbs which have two objects — direct and indirect prepositional: «to describe», «to dictate», «to repeat», «to mention», «to explain», «to prove», «to declare», «to present». With these verbs definitely only one construction is possible, that is with the direct object becoming the subject of the passive construction.

The teacher explained the rule to the students. — The rule was explained to the students.

Note the use of the preposition to after this group of verbs.

Item 65. Passive constructions with the verbs which have a prepositional object: «to look at», «to listen to», «to talk about», «to speak of», «to laugh at», «to send for», «to think (at, over, out)», «to argue about». With these verbs the prepositional object becomes the subject of the passive construction.

They listened to him with great attention. — He was listened to with great attention.

They sent for the doctor. — The doctor was sent for.

Item 66. Passive constructions with group verbs: «to take care of, «to shake hands with», «to catch hold of», «to put an end to», etc.

In passive constructions with these verbs the preposition is preserved.

She takes good care of him. ~ He is taken good care of.

 

Item 67. The Perfect Tenses are used to denote an action wtuch is, was or will be performed before any other action or time (moment or period). Perfect tenses are constructed with the help of the auxiliary verb to have in the appropriate tense followed by the Past Participle of the principal verb.

The contracted forms are:


 

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Future Perfect

affirmative

I, we’ve done it. He’s done it.

I, he, we’d done it.

I, he, we’ll have done it.

negative

I, we haven’t done it. He hasn’t done it.

I, he, we hadn’t done it.

I, he, we’ll not have done it.

negative-interrogative

Haven’t I, we done it?

Hadn’t I, he, we done it?

Haven’t I, we, hasn’t he done it?

 

Item 68. The Present Perfect is used when the action was accomplished in the past but it has some connection with the present either because the action has had consequences which affect the present or because it has continued into the present moment. It is used mostly in direct speech, in dialogues.

He has come. (means: I know that he is here at the moment.)

I have read this novel, (means: I know what it is about.)

She has seen that movie twice, (means: She likes it a lot.)

The Present Perfect is often used with time indicators such as often, already, sometimes, yet, ever, never, just, always, seldom, every day.

She has never travelled that far.

Have you ever been to England?

Yes, I’ve just returned.

Item 69. The Present Perfect is not used when the time of the action in the past is indicated. Then the past indefinite is usedi-The use of time indicators such as yesterday, last week (month, etc.), a week ago, etc. focuses attention on the action as an event in the past and the present perfect cannot be used. So the present indefinite only is used in questions with when.

I saw him five minutes ago. She went to St. Petersburg last year. When did she leave for Dover?

The present perfect is not used with the phrase just now; the past indefinite is used with it.

He was here just now.

Item 70. The present perfect is often used with the preposition for or with since which can be a preposition, an adverb or a conjunction. For is used to show how long an action has continued. Since indicates at what point of time, more or less precise, the action began.

He has worked for this company for 20 years.

I’ve been here for two hours.

He has worked there since 1985. (a preposition)

They met three years ago. He hasn’t seen her since, (an adverb)

She has sent me three letters since I saw her last. (a conjunction)

Since is never omitted but for is often dropped in affirmative sentences.

I have been here (for) 15 minutes.

For is also used with the past indefinite to express the duration of an action but then the action does not continue into the present.

The door was unguarded for 1 hour.

Item 71. Have got. The phrase have got denotes possession, relationship, or a state of illness. It is used mostly informally.

They have got a very comfortable country house, (possession)

She’s got a brother and a sister, (relationship)

He has got a terrible cough. (illness)

The phrase does not denote an action performed in the past. It is related entirely to the present state. So in meaning it is different from the present perfect although in form it coincides with it. See the difference:

<

The present perfect related to a past action:

I have got the letter which you asked Alex to give me. Я получила письмо…

The meaning of possession at present not related to a past action: I’ve got this letter. У меня есть это письмо.

The phrase is used in the present. In the past the meanings of possession, relationship and illness are conveyed by the verb to have in the past indefinite.

I felt very cold at the top of the mountain because I didn’t have a warm sweater.

He had a breakdown last year but now he is much better.

Item 72.
Have got may also express obligation. It is used mostly in informal English (also see Item 107).

«I’ve got to go now,» she said rising slowly.

He hasn’t got to do this work all over again. It isn’t as bad as he thinks.

Item 73. The Past Perfect denotes an action which took place before some moment in the past. It is common in reported speech after the verbs to say, to tell, to ask, to explain, to add, to report, to wonder, etc. It indicates something which had already happened when the action denoted by the predicate of the principal clause took place.

They told him they had seen the new play.

She told me that her trip South had been delightful.

His son was proud that he had helped his father to paint the fence.

Ann explained to him what had happened.

The moment in the past from which another past action expressed by the past perfect is considered can be expressed by an adverbial phrase with the preposition by: by the end of the month, by 1 o’clock, by that summer, etc. or by another action.

By the end of October the road had frozen. He had finished the work by 4 o’clock.

Item 74. The past perfect is used with the time conjunctions after, before, as soon as, and also since and for.

After we had put all the luggage in the car we started off. As soon as he had told his friends about the incident at the party the news spread like fire.

Since that time she had never played that piece.

Item 75. The action denoted by the past perfect can also continue at the past moment from which it is viewed.

 

They had written the composition for an hour when Nina joined them.

She said she had been at home for an hour then.

Item 76. The Numeral. Ordinal numerals are usually used with the definite article (the second term, the first year). In compound cardinal numerals the conjunction and is usually used between two last figures in the number.

1041 — one thousand and forty-one

page 241 — page two hundred and forty-one

The words hundred, thousand, million, used in the singular take the indefinite article or the numeral one.

She always has a thousand ideas.

Mind: No preposition is used between the numeral and the noun it is related to.

His land site was about three hundred yards long.

I want three pounds of potatoes.

He planted ten apple trees in his garden.

She wants to save a hundred dollars by living economically.

The cashier took eighty pounds and gave Helen a receipt.

Mind: The numerals hundred, thousand or million are used without the –s in the plural when denote an exact number.

 

three hundred books триста книг

five thousand miles пять тысяч миль

The numerals over one thousand are written with a comma, e.g.: 2,196, 7,234; 10,273.

Item 77. The plural form of hundred, thousand and dozen is used when no exact number of objects is meant.

She bought dozens of eggs from that grocer and they were always fresh.

Thousands of people left England for strange shores in the 19th century.

Item 78. The numerals between 1,500 and 1,900 are orally pronounced as fifteen hundred, nineteen hundred, etc.

Item 79. No articles are used when numerals denote years. They are read in two halves e.g. 1917 — nineteen seventeen; 1945 — nineteen forty-five; 1993 — nineteen ninety-three; 2000 — two thousand. However the definite article is used when a decade (десятилетие) is meant. Mark that the ordinal numeral is used in the plural in this case, e.g. in the 1930-ies — in the nineteen thirties; in the 1980-ies — in the nineteen eighties.

Item 80. Ordinal numbers are used with the names of kings and queens, e.g. Elizabeth I— Elizabeth the First; Peter I — Peter the First.

Remember the following:

half an hour полчаса

a quarter of an hour четверть часа

two kilometres and a half два с половиной километра

by the dozen дюжинами

by the hundred сотнями

by the thousand тысячами

The cashier counted the money by the hundred.

Item 81. The Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives.

If objects, people, etc. compared are similar then the adjective is in the positive degree.

She was as slender as her sister. Jane is always as busy as a bee.

 

If there is a difference between them, then adjectives are used in the comparative or the superlative degree. There are two comparative degrees — of superiority and of inferiority.

The comparative degree of superiority is formed by adding the inflexion –-er or more, which depends on the number of the syllables in the adjective.

She looked happier than before.

This film is more interesting than the one I saw last week.

For emphasis much can be added.

She is much more capable than her sister. Он гораздо способнее своей сестры.

The comparative degree of inferiority is formed by adding less or not so (as)… as.

She is less talkative than her sister.

Jack is not so (as) tall as his brother.

Item 82. There are two superlative degrees — of superiority and of inferiority. The superlative degree of superiority is formed by adding the inflexion -est or most.

Jane was the loveliest girl in class. He is the most careful driver I’ve seen.

The superlative degree of inferiority is formed by adding least.

It is the least possible variant.

Mind the use of the definite article with nouns preceded by adjectives in the superlative degree.

She is the cleverest girl in the team. It was the most unbelievable incident.

Item 83. There are special rules for forming the degrees of comparison of adjectives: one-syllable adjectives and two-syllable adjectives ending in -y form the degrees of comparison by adding the ending -er and -est, e.g. lovely — lovelier — the loveliest. With most other two-syllable adjectives, more and most are used, e.g. tragic — more tragic — most tragic; precise — more precise — most precise. There are some adjectives which form the degrees of comparison in both ways. Here are some of them: clever, noble, cruel, pleasant, wicked, polite. But the forms with more and most are more common, e.g. clever — more clever — most clever (clever — cleverer — cleverest); noble — more noble — most noble (noble — nobler — noblest).

When the adjective has three or more syllables more and most are used to form the degrees of comparison, e.g. successful — more successful — most successful. The words little, much, many have irregular forms: little — less — least; much/many — more — most. There are adjectives which form the degrees of comparison in an irregular way: good — better — best; bad — worse — worst; far — farther — farthest (far — further — furthest); old — older — oldest (old — elder — eldest). Farther is related to distance; further can also apply to distance, but at the same time it is used to mean «extra», «additional» or «advanced», e.g. further education; further steps. Elder and eldest are used instead of older and oldest before the words brother, sister, son, daughter, grandson, granddaughter. The difference between elder and eldest is the following: Her elder daughter is the older of her two daughters; if her eldest daughter is used then it means that the woman has three or more daughters. If we say his elder sister we mean to say that he has only one sister who is older than he. Elder and eldest can be substantivized, i.e. used as nouns.

He is the eldest in the family.

Item 84. There are some specific spelling rules. Adjectives ending in —y change it into i before —er, —est, if there is a consonant before y, e.g. happy — happier — happiest.

Adjectives ending in -e drop the endings and are directly connected with the endings —er, —est without e, e.g. brave — braver.

In one-syllable words adjectives ending in a vowel and consonant the consonant is doubled, e.g. hot — hotter — hottest; fat — fatter — fattest.

Item 85. The Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs.

Qualitative adverbs which denote quality are derived from adjectives. They have degrees of comparison which are formed by adding more and most.

He repeated the words more quietly than the first time. Helen comes here now more often than before.

There are adverbs which form the degrees of comparison with the endings -er and -est. They are as follows: long. late, early, fast, soon, hard, near, often.

There are some adverbs which form the degrees of comparison irregularly. They are: well — better — best; badly — worse — worst; little — less — least; much — moremost. Mind the place of the adverb enough in the sentence. It can modify an adjective or an adverb, e.g. cold enough, loudly enough; or it can modify a noun, e.g. We’ve had enough meat. Now lets have some fruit; or a pronoun, e.g. I’ve had enough of this. That’s enough.

The place of enough with adjectives and adverbs is after the word modified.

It is a fast enough train.

It isn’t good enough for me.

He was speaking slowly enough for us to understand him.

Item 86. Continuous Tenses denote an action that is going on, was going on or will be going on at a particular moment. Respectively there are the present, past and future continuous.

Continuous tenses are formed with the help of the auxiliary verb to be and the ing-form of the principal verb.

— Where is Helen? — She is weeding the flower-beds. When she came into the room Peter was speaking on (over) the phone.

I’ll be flying this time next Tuesday.

The contracted forms are:

affirmative

present continuous

past continuous

future continuous

I’m (he’s, we’re) reading.


I’ll (he’ll, we’ll) be reading.

negative

I aren’t (he isn’t) reading. We aren’t reading.

I (he) wasn’t reading. We weren’t reading.

I (we) shan’t be reading. He won’t be reading.

 

 

negative-interrogative

present continuous

past continuous

future continuous

Isn’t he reading?

Aren’t we reading?

Wasn’t I (he) reading? Weren’t we reading?

Won’t he (I, we, you) be reading?

 

Item 87. The Present Continuous is used to denote an action which is taking place at the present moment. So the time of the action is indicated by the tense form used. Sometimes adverbs and adverbial phrases are used, such as now, at present, at the present moment, etc.

She is playing volley-ball.

They are having lunch at the moment.

The present continuous is also used to show that the actions or situations are temporary. This use should not be confused with the present indefinite which denotes a permanent situation.

He is living at the Red Lion. — He lives in Brook Street.

The present continuous is used to express an action in the future, particularly with the verbs to go, to come, to leave.

They are coming to Moscow tomorrow.

He is leaving one of these days.

With words, which refer to physical feelings, such as to feel, to ache, to hurt both the present indefinite and the present continuous can be used without much difference in meaning.

Does your head ache? Is it aching?

There are verbs in English which are not used in the continuous form. Here are some of them: to like, to love, to want, to wish, to hate, to please, to surprise, to satisfy, to believe, to doubt, to think, to understand, to hear, to see, to depend, to matter, to need and some others.

The verbs to hear and to see are used with the modal verb can to denote an action going on at the moment of speaking.

I can hear music coming from afar.

I can see a cat climbing the tree.

 

Item 88. The
Past Continuous is used to denote an action in progi-ess at some particular moment in the past. This moment can be shown either by another past action, a situation or by such adverbs and adverbial phrases as at that time, at 3 p.m., etc.

When he was returning from Bristol he met her on the train.

What were you doing yesterday at 5?

When there are two actions which happen simultaneously more often the past continuous is used only in one clause.

The men were mending the road as we stood at the edge.

 

When the conjunctions as and while are used in the sentence the past continuous is not always used as the meaning of the conjunctions proper denotes duration.

While we sat he spoke to his daughter.

If a whole period of time is implied when the action was going on the past continuous may be used. This meaning of the past continuous contains emphasis.

I was reading up for the exam the whole week.

The past continuous with the adverb always is used when we mean to say that it happened often.

I was always leaving my purse at home.

Item 89. The Future Continuous is used to denote an action which will be in progress at some moment in the future. The future moment is denoted by the situation, indicated by another action, or by an adverb or adverbial phrases such as then, at that time, at that moment, at three o’clock, etc. If the preposition by is used it does not show the time by which the action will be completed but the time when the action will be taking place. This meaning of the preposition by is close to the meaning of the preposition at.

What will you be doing tomorrow at 7 o’clock? — I’ll be watching my favourite TV cable program.

By this time next week they will be driving to Stratford.

The future continuous is also used to denote a progressive action which takes up a period of time in the future.

I’ll be skiing tomorrow from 9 to 11.

The future continuous is used when a future action is planned or supposed.

We’ll be seeing Philip tomorrow. I’ll be working very hard the remaining two weeks.

 

Item 90. Indefinite Pronouns. To the group of indefinite pronouns belong: each, every, both, all, some, any, no, none, other, another, either, neither, much, little, one, many, few. There are also compound indefinite pronouns which are formed on the basis of the pronouns some, any, no and every; they are: something (anything, nothing, everything); somebody {someone), anybody (anyone), nobody (no one), everybody (everyone).

Item 91. The indefinite pronoun both can be used in the sentence with the subject or an object. If it is used with the subject or an object then it is followed by the preposition of if the noun. has the definite article or the possessive pronoun.

Both of the students got high marks. Both of her children graduated from the same college.

No article is used before pronouns, so the article is never used before indefinite pronouns.

If the pronoun both is used with a simple verbal predicate then it precedes the predicate, if the latter is in the indefinite form.

We both read a lot.

In compound predicates the pronoun is put after the first auxiliary verb, or after the link verb.

They have both been late. The brothers are both very tall.

The structure both… and is often used when the same member of the sentence follows them.

She is both beautiful and smart. John both swims and board jumps.

Item 92, The indefinite pronoun all can go before a noun or pronoun or after them. It can sometimes be followed by the preposition of.

All of them (They all) came on time.

All (of) the children looked happy.

All (of) your students have shown aptitude for learning.

The preposition of cannot be used if there is no article or pronoun before the noun which all modifies.

 

All students feel uneasy before an exam.

If the pronoun all is used in the middle of the sentence with the predicate then it is used like both (see above).

Item
93. The indefinite pronouns some and any are used with uncountable nouns and nouns in the plural.

He needs some good physical shake-up, like a strong exercise.

Have you got any apples?

Some is used in affirmative sentences; any is used in interrogative and negative sentences.

Do you know any funny stories? I haven’t got any books on English art.

Some and any are used when indefinite or unknown numbers or quantities are meant.

He’s got some wonderful books on Italian art.

If the pronouns some and any are followed by a noun with an article or possessive pronoun then they should be used with the preposition of.

I want some of these pastries. You can ask any of the girls.

The difference between something and anything, somebody and anybody, someone and anyone is the same as the difference between some and any.

Item 94. The indefinite pronouns no and none are used in negative sentences. They are the negative forms of any. No is usedJaefore a. noun; when there is no noun after the pronoun none is used.

We have no milk left. There is none.

Item 95. The indefinite pronouns other(s) and another. When other is used in the function of an attribute no plural form is used. When the pronoun other is used in the function of a noun then it may have the plural form. Others means «other people», «other things».

 

Where have you put the other papers? (Where are the others?)

Please let know the others that we are coming. Some apples were ripe, others were green yet.

Another has two meanings: 1. one more, in addition; 2. a different person, thing, etc. from the one which is basic.

Take another pear.

I want another dress, I think I don’t like the colour.

There are the following phrases to remember: another thing is…; on the one hand …on the other hand; the other day (quite recently).

Item 96. Sequence of Tenses is a set of rules which dictate the use of tenses in complex sentences in English. If the verb of the predicate in the principal clause ia-in one.Jof. the present tenses (see also Item 3d) then in. the subordinate clause any tense can be used according, to .the meaning of the sentence.

He says that everything was all right. They wonder if the train urrived on time. Jane wants to know exactly what has happened.

Item 97. If the verb of the predicate in the principal clause is in one of the past tenses then in the predicate of the subordinate clause only one of the past tenses can be used. Which tense is used depends on whether the action of the principal and the subordinate clauses are simultaneous or not. If the actions are simultaneous then the past indefinite (continuous) is used in both the principal and the subordinate .clauses.

John believed that she had no idea of the plan. She was trying to find the way out although the situation seemed quite hopeless.

I saw her face as she passed the window.

Item 98. If the action expressed by the predicate of the subordinate clause takes place before the action expressed by the predicate of the principal clause then the past perfect is used in the subordinate clause.

He thought he had signed the document. When we arrived at the place we found that all had already left.

Item 9.9. If the action of the subordinate clause takes place in the future but the action of the principal clause is related to the past then the future-in-the-past is used in the subordinate clause (see also Item 58).

She knew it would be soon getting dark. Billy said he would keep from using the car if he didn’t need it really badly.

Item 100. The rule of the sequence of tenses is not observed in sentences in which the subordinate clause contains information on universally true facts.

Copernik proved that the Earth revolves round the Sun. 316

 

Item 101. Modal verbs show the attitude of the speaker towards the action which is expressed by the infinitive after the modal verb. Modal verbs cannot be used alone. They are always combined with the infinitive. The predicate which consists of a modal verb and the infinitive of the principal verb is called a modal compound verbal fireidicate. The attitude of the speaker towards the action may be different depending on the modal verb. It can express the modality of necessity and obligation (the modal verbs must, ought, shall, need), of ability (the modal verb can), permission or request (may).

You must do it at once.

You ought to be more attentive.

 

He shall talk to her before he leaves.

He can do this work very quickly if you ask him.

You may not see him now. He’s busy.

Item 102. The infinitive which follows modal verbs is used without the particle to, except for the verb ought.

You may say whatever you wish but I’m sure of what I know.

I realize I ought to visit them but I cannot find time.

Item 103. The modal verb must just like other modal verbs has no infinitive or other non-finite forms. Neither has it the past tense. It is used only in the present tense. Must can be related to the past but only in indirect speech.

She must do it at once. We told them they must start the work as early as possible.

Item 104. The interrogative with must is formed by placing must before the subject.

Must he do it now or later?

The negative of must is formed by adding the negation not to must. The complete form is must not, the contracted form is mustn’t.

Item 105.
Must is used to denote obligation and necessity.

You must write the letter before the post-office opens. I’m afraid I must go now. It’s late.

Must also expresses prohibition. In the negative answer to a question which contains must a different modal verb is used — that’s need. The negative of need is needn’t. It is explained by the following: must in this construction means asking about the intentions of the person with whom one is speaking or whom one is addressing.

Must I clean the room now? — No, you needn’t.

If the meaning in the negative sentence is disapproval or prohibition then must is used.

You mustn’t behave like this. It isn’t fair. 318

 

Item 106. The past and future meanings of the verb must are expressed by the past indefinite or the future indefinite of the verb have followed by the infinitive of the main verb.

She had to leave the party before the other guests. Will you have to do it tomorrow?

The interrogative and negative forms are built with the help of the auxiliary verb to do in the past and future indefinite.

Did you have to do it yourself? You didn’t have to drink so much coffee. Will you have to mail all these letters tomorrow? Won’t you have to mention all the people who promoted the project?

Item 107. Have (got) to do smth is a common conversational form. It refers to the present and future time. The meaning of have (got) to do smth in the affirmative and the interrogative is close to must, although have (got) to do smth is generally used under the pressure of another person or other circumstances (rules, regulations, etc. or smb’s opinion).

I must pay a visit to these people, I really must (I feel it that way).

They’ve (got) to pay all taxes before the beginning of next year (according to the present law).

The negative forms in .the present tense mustn’t and don’t have to (haven’t got to) are different in meaning. With must the predicate means obligation, necessity; with don’t have to (haven’t got to) it means absence of necessity.

She must not let them know the details of our arrangement. He doesn’t have to go there tomorrow (it isn’t necessary).

Item 108. Another meaning of the verb must is expressing probability of smth we are sure of. This meaning refers only to affirmations. It is expressed differently in interrogative and negative sentences (with the help of the modal verb can).

«It must be very late,» he said trying to make out the time in the darkness. ( — Должно быть, сейчас очень поздно.) — Can that really be true? — No, that can’t be exactly that.

Item 109. The modal verb can has the meaning of physical or mental ability to do something, the freedom to do what a person wants to do. In the form of can it refers both to the present and future.

He can swim.

She can translate the article tomorrow.

The verb can also has the past tense — could.

The woman could speak three languages at least.

To talk about ability in the future to be able is used.

They will be able to write without mistakes very soon.

If the time of the action is not clear from the situation then to be able is used rather than can.

He will be able to return soon.

Item 110. Could is also used to express unreality in relation to the present or the future.

She could do it at once.

If the action refers to the past to show ability on one occasion; (o be able is used.

She was able to do it at once.

Item 111. Could is used in relation to general ability in the past but it is not used when one particular occasion is meant. Then to be able to, to manage or to succeed in are used.

He could write a composition in no time at all.

He was able to write the composition within one hour.

She is a stubborn girl and I managed to make her go there only after a very long talk.

However, the negative form couldn’t is used for both — general ability to do something and a particular occasion.

He couldn’t speak English well at that stage. I couldn’t make him believe me.

 

Item 112.
Could is followed by a perfect infinitive (the infinitive of the auxiliary verb to have plus the 3d form of the principal verb) when the idea is that one was able to do something but did not do it.

He could have done it much quicker.

He could have won the bet (пари).

Item 113. The verb can is used with a perfect infinitive only in questions and negative sentences. Then the meaning is that of supposing smth or guessing about the past.

They can’t have gone there so early.

Can she have joined the other group?

Item 114.
Can also expresses a request for something or permission to do something. The past form could is also used in this meaning, though it sounds slightly more polite.

Can I have this book?

Could I have another cup?

The answer to could in this meaning is in the present tense. Of course, you can.

The modal verb may and its past form might are used with the same meaning but they are more formal. Might is becoming less common and if used in this function expresses doubt or hesitation.

May I start at once?

Item 115. The other uses of the verb may are: a) of prohibition (in the negative form); then it is close in meaning to must not.

You may not use this phone, it’s only for club members.

b) supposition or uncertainty:

It may snow. The sky is overcast.

In negative constructions can is used.

The story can’t be true.

Item 116. The phrase can’t help plus ing-form means that one is made to do something though one is unwilling to do it.

Though she was of heavy build you couldn’t help admiring her grace.

 

Item 117. The verb need can be both an ordinary and modal verb. When it is an ordinary verb it has all the forms that ordinary verbs have. That is, it has the third person ending, makes the interrogative and negative forms with the auxiliary verb do, it has an infinitive and participle forms and it is followed by an infinitive with to.

They need to get a few books from the library before they start the work.

Will you need to stay there that long?

These ordinary forms are generally used and the only modal form of the verb need which is very common is the negative form needn’t. The modal verb need is used to ask for permission or give it in the negative meaning.

Need we go there today? You needn’t worry. I’ll do it myself.

Item 118.The verb need can be followed by a perfect infinitive, and then it has modal meaning. The phrase needn’t have done something means that something has been done but it was unnecessary.

I needn’t have gone to the party. (Means: I went there but feel sorry for the wasted time.)

Item 119. The modal verb should expresses duty, advice, obligation. Generally it refers to the future, if it is followed by a perfect infinitive it means that the action was not done.

You should have gone there.

Should I help you with the books?

If the sentence is negative then should plus a perfect infinitive shows that the action was undesirable.

You should not have done it.

 

Item 120. Reported Speech reports something that was said by another person or by the speaker himself. But not the exact words of the speaker are given. They are adjusted to the rest of the situation and so there are changes in tenses, in the word order and in some of the words used.

Reported speech is introduced by the conjunction that. In oral speech the conjunction is sometimes dropped.

Item 121. In statements the following changes take place in transforming direct speech into reported: 1) personal pronouns and possessive pronouns are changed:

Direct speech Indirect speech

John says: «I like this film.» John says that he likes this

(that) film.

John says: «This is my book.» John says that this is his book.

2) if the predicate of the reporting verb is in the present or future tenses (or in the present perfect) then the tenses used in reported speech are the same as in the original direct speech sentence. The other changes in the sentence are made according to the rules of English, e.g.:

He says: «It will snow.» — He says that it will snow. She says: «I have to get ready for a report.» — She says that she has to get ready for a report.

The verb to tell is used in reported speech when there is an indirect object expressed by a noun, pronoun or a proper name.

Jack has just told us that he is leaving tomorrow.

 

Item 122. If the predicate in the introductory clause to direct speech is in the past tense then the following pattern of tense changes is observed: the present is changed into past, the present perfect and present indefinite — into past perfect, the future into the future-in-the-past. The other changes are: this is changed into- that: these — into those; now — into then; yesterday —. into the previous day, the day before; today — into that day; tomorrow — into the next day; ago — into before.

Item 123. In some cases the past indefinite tense in direct speech is not changed into the past perfect to indirect speech. This happens when:

1) a definite moment is indicated. She told me that she was born in 1959.

2) the information which direct speech contains is still true from the point of view of today.

He said he will visit his aunt tomorrow. They told us they arrived only yesterday, (from the point of view of today)

Item
124. In reporting orders and commands the verbs to tell, to ask, to advise, to remind, to command, to order, to request, to urge are used. The imperative mood of direct speech is rendered by the infinitive.

The teacher said to the students: «Hand in your papers, please.» — The teacher asked the students to hand in their papers.

Father said to the son: «Never do it again.» — Father told (begged, advised) his son never to do it again.

The secretary said to the visitor: «Will you please wait?» — The secretary requested the visitor to wait. (the verb to request is formal)

Item 125. In reporting questions the verbs to ask or to enquire, to wonder are used. General questions are introduced by the conjunctions if or whether. Special questions are introduced by the conjunction or pronoun corresponding to sense. The word order in indirect questions is always direct.

She asked him how many children he had.

We enquired of the lady in the Inquiry Office what time the train left.

 

Item 126. The Present Perfect Continuous used to denote an action which began in the past and which has continued up to the moment when we speak.

It is built with the help of the auxiliary verbs to have in the present tense and to be. in the 3rd form (have been). The beginning of the action is marked by since which is followed by a reference to some moment in the past. Since can be a preposition, an adverb or a conjunction. The preposition for is also very often used with the present perfect continuous to show the duration of an action.

Dick has been sitting at his desk since 5 o’clock.

She has been working at this college for 10 years.

The beginning of an action indicated by the present perfect continuous can also be marked by a clause with the predicate in the past indefinite. The clause is introduced by the conjunction since.

She has been doing this work since she was 10. The contracted forms are:

affirmative

I’ve been waiting, he’s been waiting, we’ve been waiting

negative

I haven’t been waiting, he hasn’t been waiting, we haven’t been waiting

negative-interrogative

Haven’t I been waiting? Hasn’t he been waiting? Haven’t we been waiting?

 

 

 

Item 127. There is a difference between the use of the present continuous and present perfect continuous. The

former is related only to the present moment whereas the present perfect continuous is related to an action which started in the past. These two tense forms are not to be confused though in Russian they sound in translation alike. The difference between the present perfect and the present perfect continuous is the following: the present perfect continuous is used for actions which are less permanent and for those which have not been completed, but the present perfect is used for more permanent actions and also for those which have been completed. Cf.:

He has been working in the garden since sunrise, (he is still working but he started his work at sunrise) — He is working in the garden, (he is working there at the moment)

I’ve been staying here for a fortnight. — My family has lived in Moscow for over 50 years.

He has been doing the work since April, (he is still doing it) — He has done the work. (the work is already done)

Item 128. The Past Perfect Continuous is used to denote an activity which began in the past before some moment and had continued up to that moment in the past. It is built with the help of the auxiliary verbs to have in the past tense and to be in the 3rd form (had been) followed by an ing-form. The preposition for is used to show the period when the action was taking place. The period of the action can also be shown by the adverbial phrases all the time, all winter, etc. The beginning of the action is often marked by since, just like in the present perfect continuous although the moment of reference precedes another moment in the past. A subordinate clause can also be used to denote a moment in the past. It is most commonly introduced by the conjunction when. The preposition by is also used to denote a moment in the past.

She had been working all day and looked very pale.

Nick had been waiting for 30 minutes when she turned up.

By 10 o’clock he had been driving for 5 hours and felt tired.

Item 129. The difference between the past perfect and the past perfect continuous is the following: the past perfect denotes an action completed before some past moment whereas the past perfect continuous denotes an action wliich had begun before a past moment and was going on then.

 

Item 130. Complex Object. In English an object may be expressed by a complex which consists of a noun (a proper noun, a pronoun) and an infinitive (or a participle). The pronoun in a complex object, is used in the objective case (me, him, her, us, you, them).

This construction with an infinitive is very common after the verbs to want, to know, to expect, to believe, to advise, to find, and also would like.

We want him to understand this.

They know the girl to be clever.

I advised him to go by plane.

 

Item 131. English sentences with complex objects are syntactically simple. When they are translated into Russian the elements of the construction become the subject and the predicate of the Russian complex sentence. Thus a non-finite form in English (an infinitive, a participle, a gerund) becomes a finite form in Russian. The conjunctions как, что, чтобы are also added.

We want the boy to go to this school. Мы хотим, чтобы мальчик учился в этой школе.

Item 132. A complex object is also used after the verbs of physical perception to see, to hear, to feel, to notice, to watch. After these verbs the infinitive in complex objects is used without to.

I saw her turn round the corner. He heard somebody knock on the window.

A present participle is used in a complex object to present the action as a process.

He could hear somebody singing in the next room.

Item 133. After the verbs to let, to make in complex objects the infinitive is used without to.

Who let you do it?

She made me wear the raincoat.

 

Item 134. When the verbs of physical perception or the verbs to let and to make are used in the passive there is no complex object and the infinitive is used with the particle to.

He was made to tell the truth.

She was heard to say it.

 

Item 135. The Passive Voice with Perfect Tense forms is made with the help of the auxiliary verb to be in the 3rd form which is put in between the auxiliary verb to have in the appropriate tense (present, past) and the 3rd form of the principal verb. The adverbs of indefinite time are put after the first auxiliary verb.

This fact has been known since 1986.

The house had been completed by last year.

The work has never been done.

Item 136. The Use of Tenses in Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses Referring to the Future. Adverbial clauses of time and condition are introduced by the conjunctions when, after, till, until, as soon as, if, in case, etc. In these clauses the future tense is not used. The present tense is used instead. If the action is in the past then the past tense is used (not the future-in-the-past).

He’ll come as soon as he gets my cable.

When she arrives I’ll tell her the news.

I knew he would do it as soon as he came home.

I’ll see you tomorrow if I have time.

If you come early we’ll go for a walk.

I’ve got my umbrella in case it rains.

We prepared everything in case he came.

However, the future tense is used in ^/-clauses with the meaning of willingness.

If you will follow me I’ll show you where his room is.

 

Item l37. Clauses introduced by the conjunctions when, as if can also be object clauses and then the future tense is used when the action refers to the future.

We don’t know when we shall see him.

We believed he would arrive the next day.

The conjunction if is also used in object clauses when if is close to the meaning of whether and then the future tense is used.

They didn’t know if she would arrive. I wonder if I’ll see you tomorrow.

Item 138. The present tense instead of the future is also used when the actions in the principal and subordinate clauses are simultaneous. If the whole sentence refers to the future one future tense is enough to denote it.

She will go where they go.

I’d like to ask her what she needs.

Anybody who reads it will understand its real value.

We’ll enjoy the hike whether it rains or not.

I guess she’ll do at the exams better than he does.

The present tense is also jised after the phrases I don’t care, I don’t mind.

I don’t care what you choose to wear.

Item 139. Adverbial clauses of time introduced by the con-junction as show that the actions of the principal and adverbial clauses are simultaneous. No continuous forms are generally used in such adverbial clauses.

As he walked down the street he grew more concerned. As she talked I clearly remembered the whole story.

Item 140. The
Use of Tenses in Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Time Referring to the Past. With the conjunctions after, as soon as, when, in reference to past actions the past indefinite is used in the principal clause and the past perfect or the past indefinite in the adverbial clause.

After they (had) spent there two hours they rose to go. As soon as he (had) left the building he met his old friend.

With the conjunctions before, till, the past perfect is used in the principal clause and the past indefinite in the subordinate clause.

He had locked the door before he left.

Sometimes priority is shown by the conjunction.

A few years passed before he came to the city again.

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