The Individual and Society

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091613 0210 TheIndividu1 The Individual and Society 1 . Чтение

1.1. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст

Most introductory textbooks on Economics begin by posing the question, what is Economics about? Although Economics is a vast subject and precise definitions are usually very, complex, it is not a difficult matter, to give a simple and sensible answer to the basic question. Economics is essentially a shady of the ways in which people apply their knowledge, skills, and efforts to the gifts of nature in order to satisfy their material wants.

Economics limits itself to the study of the material aspects of live, and while it is true that man cannot live by bread alone, it is equally true that he cannot live without it. An underlying problem in economics is that of survival and we must examine how must examine how people have solved or are trying to solve this problem. In the more advanced countries this may seem a very remote problem- few people, if any, are conscious of a life or death struggle for existence is by no means assured- starvation is a very real prospect for millions of human beings.

Even in the prosperous economically advanced countries there is an aspect of survival which attracts little or no attention from those of us fortunate enough to live in these areas. This is our relative helplessness as «economic» individuals. The Indian peasants have an extremely low standard of living, yet, left completely to their own devices, they can survive. Such people have the abilities to sustain life without outside assistance. A large percentage of the human race still lives in very small self-sufficient peasant communities. These people experience great poverty, but they can provide on an individual basis, for their own survival. They have a degree of economic independence.

If we now turn to the inhabitants of New York, London, or any other great metropolitan area we must observe the opposite situation- a high standard of living together with an extreme economic dependence. The inhabitants of cities are totally incapable of providing for themselves, directly, the means of their survival. They could not feed themselves, or build their own houses. Such people depend each and every day of their lives, on the efforts and cooperation of many thousands of specialist workers. In industrialized societies a high standard of living is possible only if the organized cooperation of large numbers of people can be guaranteed. In the economically developed countries we are rich, not as individuals, but only as members of a complex economic organization.

 

Человек и Общество

Большинство вводных учебников по Экономиксу начинается, с раскрытия вопроса что такое «экономика»? Хотя Экономикс — обширный предмет, и дать точные определения не представляется затрудненным, не легко дать на такой простой и легкий вопрос. Экономикс — по существу один из возможных путей, с помощью которых люди применяют свои знания, навыки, и усилия к факторам производства, чтобы удовлетворить свои материальные желания.

Экономис ограничивает себя исследованием материальных аспектов жизни, и это время как верно, что человек не может жить «хлебом единым» и не только этим. Основная проблема в экономике – проблема выживания, и нам необходимо исследовать, как люди решают или пробуют решать данную проблему. В более развитых передовых странах это может показаться очень отдаленной проблемой – ведь здесь немного людей, если даже и таковые вообще там существуют, ведут смертельную борьбу за существование, и нет уверенности, что голод — очень реальная перспектива миллионов людей.

Даже в преуспевающих в экономическом отношении развитых странах существуют проблемы выживания, которые привлекают внимание некоторых из нас. В этом и состоит наша относительная беспомощность как «экономических» людей. У индийских крестьян чрезвычайно низкий уровень жизни, но все же, оставленные полностью на собственные силы, они могут выжить. Такие люди обладают способностью жить без внешней помощи. Большой процент от человеческого общества все еще живет в очень маленьких самостоятельных крестьянских сообществах. Эти люди испытывают огромную бедность, но они могут себя индивидуально в целях собственного выживания. Они имеют определенную степень экономической независимости.

Если мы теперь обратимся к жителям Нью-Йорка, Лондона, или любой другой большой столичной области, мы сможем наблюдать противоположную ситуацию – высокий уровень жизни вместе с чрезвычайной экономической зависимостью. Жители городов полностью неспособны к обеспечению себя средствами выживания. Они не могут прокормить себя, или строить свои собственные здания. Жизнь таких люди зависит каждый день от усилий и сотрудничества многих тысяч рабочих специалиста. В индустрализированных обществах высокий уровень жизни возможен, только если можно гарантировать организованное сотрудничество большого количества людей. В экономически развитых странах люди богаты, как члены сложной экономической организации.

 

 

1.2.    Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:

 

Study, precise, complex, subject, essentially, use, exact, matter, basically, mainly, apply, oleveloped, examine, advanced, completely, help, community, totally, assistance, society, build, gift, construct, present.

 

Present – gift

Precise – exact

Use – apply

Society – community

 

 

 

1.3.    Найдите антонимы среди следующих слов:

Begin, difficult, high, poor, inside, wealth, finish, easy, low, prosperous, outside, poverty, capable, dependence, incapable, directly, large, independence, indirectly, small.

 

Difficult – easy

Begin – finish

High – low

Poor – wealth

Inside – outside

Capable – capable

Dependence – independence

Directly – indirectly

Large – small

 

 

2. Письмо

2.1. Заполните анкету по образцу:

  1. Full names Lena
  2. Address is Krasnodar
  3. Marital status
  4. Date of birth 19.05.1984
  5. Nationality russian.
  6. Contact telephone +7-918-1000-000
  7. School education № 2
  8. Higher education or special training    
  9. What degree: a diploma or certificate obtained
  10. Languages
  11. Work Experience
  12. Interpersonal Qualities

    3.Говорение

    3.1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

    The exchange rate

    Interest rates affect domestic monetary conditions and thus borrowing, consumer demand, investment output and ultimately prices. They can also have an effect on the value of sterling in terms of foreign currencies. Other things being equal, higher interest rates will tend to attract foreign funds into sterling, and thus increase the sterling exchange rate against other currencies.

    Foreign exchange markets can also be affected by official operations. Management of the UK and foreign exchange reserves is carried out by the Bank on behalf of the Treasury. The reserves are held in a government account called the Exchange Equalization Account, which was set up in the 1930s alter Britain left the gold standard: its purpose was and, remains to check undue fluctuations in the external value of sterling. This process, known as intervention, involves the Bank buying sterling in exchange for foreign currencies when it wants to curb a fall in sterling- or alternatively selling sterling if it wants to club a rise.

     

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    3.2.
    Перескажите текст по вопросам:

     

  13. Do interest rates affect the sterling exchange rate against other currencies?

    Interest rates affect domestic monetary conditions and thus borrowing, consumer demand, investment output and ultimately prices.

  14. What can they have?

    They can also have an effect on the value of sterling in terms of foreign currencies.

  15. Will interest rates affect the EURO exchange rate against other currencies or not?

    Other things being equal, higher interest rates will tend to attract foreign funds into sterling, and thus increase the sterling exchange rate against other currencies.

  16. What can foreign exchange markets?

    Foreign exchange markets can also be affected by official operations.

  17. What are held in a government?

    Management of the UK and foreign exchange reserves is carried out by the Bank on behalf of the Treasury.

  18. When was set up Exchange Equalization Account?

    The reserves are held in a government account called the Exchange Equalization Account, which was set up in the 1930s alter Britain left the gold standard: its purpose was and, remains to check undue fluctuations in the external value of sterling. This process, known as intervention, involves the Bank buying sterling in exchange for foreign currencies when it wants to curb a fall in sterling- or alternatively selling sterling if it wants to club a rise.

     

    4. Грамматика

    4.1. Вставьте, где это необходимо, артикли a/an или the:

    1 . I am an youngest in my family.

  19. My sister wants to become the doctor.
  20. My friend is a very interesting person.
  21. We keep the family photo album.
  22. I live in a big family.

     

    4.2.    Заполните пропуски предлогами:

    1 . The book is on the table.

  23. The girl is for the table.
  24. The man is at the chair.
  25. The book is in the bag.
  26. The pencil is on the desk.

     

    4.3.    Определите степень сравнения:

    Most, exciling, worse, nicer, more, popular, least, smaller, lees interesting, best, fresher, tall, most favorable, warmer, most charming.

     

    Most, exciling, worse – сравнительная, nicer – сравнительная, more – сравнительная, popular –положительная, least – полоительная, smaller – сравнительная, lees interesting, best – превосходная, fresher – сравнительная, tall – превосходная, most favorable – превосходная, warmer – сравнительная, most charming –превосходная.

     

    4.4.    Образуйте множественное число существительных

    a stop, a day, a man, a child, a wife, a student, a friend, a city.

     

    stops, days, men, children, wives, students, friends, cities.

     

    4.5.    Вставьте личные местоимения:

    1 I’m at the English lesson now.

  27. He is at home on Sundays.
  28. You are present today.
  29. She is a teacher of English at our Institute.
  30. You are busy now.

     

    4.6.    Назовите по-аглийски следующие количественные и порядковые числительные:

    3, 13,30; 5, 15,50; 6, 16, 60; 7, 17,70. Three, thirteen, thirty; five, fifteen, fifty, six, sixteen, sixty; seven, seventeen, seventy

    2-й, 12-й, 20-й; 4-й, 14-й, 40-й. The second, the twelfth, the twentieth; the fourth, the fourteenth, the fortieth

    1990г., 1147г., 1812г. One thousand nine hundred ninetieth; one thousand hundred forty seventh; one thousand eight hundred twelfth

     

    4.7.    Поставьте глагол to be b Present Simple.

  31. Our teacher are in the English lab now.
  32. The name of this street is Volgin street.
  33. A friend of mine is a student of the Moscow Institute.
  34. The houses in this street are not big.
  35. My friend and I are of the same age.

    4.8. Поставьте глаголы в Present или Past Tenses.

  36. My brother often asks me for advice (to ask).
  37. My mother works in the center of Moscow (work).
  38. I translate the text yesterday (to translate).
  39. Me are an economist (to be).
  40. She studies new words (to study).

     

    4.9.    Употребите вспомогательный глагол do hjih does.

  41. Do you live in Moscow?
  42. Does Peter work in the market?
  43. Do they know about it?
  44. Do your sister go to school?
  45. Do you read newspaper?

     

    4.7.    HocraBbTe rjiaro.il to he b Present Simple.

    1 . Our teacher … in the English lab now,

    2. The name of this street ,.. Volgin street.

    3 . A friend of mine … a student of the Moscow Institute.

  46. The houses in this street . . . not big.
  47. My friend and I … of the same age.

    4.8.    HocraBbTe rjiarojibi b Present hjih Past Tenses.

    1 . My brother often . . . me for advice (to ask), 2. My mother … in the center of Moscow (work). 3.1 … the text yesterday (to translate).

  48. 1 le … an economist (to be).
  49. She … new words (to study).

    4.9.    YnoTpeSiiTe BcnoMorarejibHbui rjiaroa do hjih does,

    1 . … you live in Moscow?

    2. … Peter work in the market?

    3 …. they know about it?

    4.    … your sister go to school?

    5,    … you read newspaper?

     

    BapiiaiiT


     

    \A. HpoMHTaiire h nucbMeiuio nepeneflirre tckct.

    To an economist, economic society presents itself as a mechanism for survival — a means where by people are able to carry out the tasks of production and distribution. If we look at the different political and social structures which exist in the world today, and the way in which those systems have developed over the years, we are tempted to say that people have made use of, and are making use of very great varieties of economic systems. In fact, in spite of the appearance of great variety it u possible to group these different economic structures into four broad categories These basic types of economic organization are usually described as Traditions economies, Market economies, command economies and Mixed economies. Traditional economies.

    The oldest and until fairly recent times by far the most common way of solvir economic problem was that of tradition. In traditional societies, people use metho of production and distribution that were devised in the distant past and which ha become the accepted ways of doing things by a long process of trial and error. In these societies we fmd that the division of land among the families in the village tribe, the methods and times of plaiting and harvesting, the selection of crops, and way in which the produce is distributed among the different groups are all based u tradition. Year by year, little is changed; indeed a change in working procedures i well be regarded as an affront to memory of ones ancestors or as an offence age the dogs.

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