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062615 1702 Grammar1 Grammar




1. My elder sister has been learning English since last autumn.

2. We had been walking for about two hours, when we finally saw the lake.

3. We have been discussing our future lobs already for 2 years.

4. By 2010 our company will have been working this sphere for 8 years.

5. What have you been doing here since early morning?

I have been repeating for my English examination.

6. She had been cleaning the house for two hours by the time I came back home.

7. Do you realize that by next month we shall have been living together for ten years.

8. I’m so tired. I have been repairing our TV for the whole day.

9. When I returned home, my guests had been waiting for me for an hour already.

10. I’m here at last. Excuse my being late.




1. My sister will be interviewed next week.

2. I wasn’t asked by name.

3. My younger sister was usually told fairy tales by my mother.

4. The early music was differently composed by Beethoven towards the end of his life.

5. Modern buildings are replaced by many beautiful ones.

6. The room was cleaned by Kate an hour ago.

7. The new computer system will be installed next month.

8. The roof of the house will be painted by the boys.

9. The interesting book was given to Nick for his birthday present.

10. A letter was received by him yesterday.

11. They are always invited to Ann’s birthday.

13. Your English will be taught by Mr. Wilson.

14. This rule is always forgotten by students.

15. The students are always praised by their teacher.







1. Russian equivalents and sentences of my own.


1. To be located – быть расположенным, располагаться.

The place where you can relax is located here in our restaurant «Ostrovski».

2. Overnight accommodation – приют на ночь.

The usual overnight accommodation of pilgrims is referred to be some inns located close to their monasteries.

3. To be run by – быть в чьем-либо распоряжении/ использование.

My library was constantly run by my friends.

4. To impose penalty – воздать плату за что-либо.

It was her penalty imposed for his mistake.

5. A wayside inn – придорожная гостиница.

This wayside inn will suit me as a shelter.

6. A stagecoach – дилижанс.

A stagecoach usually carry passengers and often mail along a regular route.


7. A stopover – остановка в пути/ транзит.

He usually does several stoppers during his journeys.

8. To purchase – делать покупку/ приобретать.

Employees are encouraged to purchase shares in the firm.

9. A diner – обедающий вне дома.

All persons in restaurants are mainly diners.




1. The first institutions of this kind, taverns, had existed long before the word was coined.

Первое заведение подобного рода – таверны – появились еще задолго, до того как образовалось слово.

2. The word «hospitality» comes from «hospice» an old French word meaning «to provide care and shelter».

Слово «гостеприимство» произошло от старофранцузского «гостиница/ приют». Значение этого слова подразумевает под собой «заботу и предоставление убежища».

3. This is why such documents become a symbol of status and were subject to thefts and forgeries.

Поэтому такие документы являли собой символ статуса – были подвержены воровству и подделке.

4. Nearer the cities inns and taverns were run by freemen or by retired gladiators, who would invest their savings in this business in the some way that many of today’s retired athletes open restaurants.

Близлежащие города, гостиницы и таверны были под началом почетных граждан или бывших гладиаторов, которые вкладывали свои сбережения в этот бизнес, точно также как вкладывают в наши дни бывшие спортсмены в ресторанный бизнес.

5/6. Inns of common folk were regarded as dens of vice and often served as houses of pleasure.

Гостиницы для простого народа подразумевали под собой притоны порока и часто служили заведениями удовольствий.

7. The pilgrims referred to stay in the inns located close to religious sites or even on the premises of the monasteries.

Паломники предпочитали останавливаться в гостиницах, расположенных на территории религиозных строений или даже в помещениях монастырей.

8. Frequently, the main dish reserved was a long cooked, highly seasoned meat-and-vegetable steak

Зачастую, основное блюдо готовилось долго, весь сезон – тушеные овощи с рисом.


9. But the diners who were frequenters were not choosy neither did they often questions what they were eating.

Но чаще всего странники были весьма не привередливы в еде и даже не спрашивали о том, что они будут есть.




1. To be fit for a king – a respectable place of a big value.

2. To be subject to forgeries – a place where thief can easily take what he want.

3. The Conrad Hiltons of their day – a period of time when Conrad Hilton was alive.

4. To serve as houses of pleasure – a place where dens of vice reign.

5. To water the beer – to mix water with beer.

6. Religious orders – a group of people especially monks or nuns living under religious rules.

7. A frequenter – a person who comes at a particular place very often.




1. The word «hospitality» comes from «hospice», an old French word of meaning «to provide care and shelter».

2. In Ancient Rome they were located on the main roads, to provide food and fresh horses and overnight accommodation for officials and couriers of the government with special documents.

3. The contemporaries proclaimed these inns to be «fit for a king».

4. Yes, it was.

5. As travel increased during Middle Ages, so did the number of wayside inns and travelers did several stoppers at inns.

6. Guests often slept on mattresses put in what would be called the lobby, ate what they had brought with them or what they could purchase from the house.

7. Frequently, the main dish serve was a long-cooked, highly seasoned meat-and-vegetable ste


Text 2


1. selective company – избирательная компания/ выборочные.

2. marketing tools – рычаги маркетинга.

3. information-based company – компания, работающая на основе информации.

4. to process information – обработка информации.

5. a performance report – официальное сообщение/ предоставлять отчет.

6. intelligence updates – свежие сведения/ информация.






1. As music becomes more selective the number of fans in different styles is not constant.

2. Marketing tools are needed to make marketing approaches more effective.

3. I have very interesting information for you.

4. A new information should be processed by you till next month.

5. He made a performance report for students.

6. These intelligence updates took my breath away.




1. As companies become national or international in scope, they need information on larger, more distant markets.

Так как компании выходят на местный рынок и на международный уровень, им необходима информация о более крупных и дальних рынках.

2. As companies become more selective, they need better information about how buyers respond to different products and appeals.

Так как появился большой выбор, среди компаний появилась необходимость в более подробной информации о том, как покупатели реагируют на разнообразие продукции и обращения.

3. John Naisbitt suggests that United States are undergoing a «megashift» from an industrial to the information-based economy.

Джон Найсбитт полагает, что Соединенные Штаты переносят «мегашифт» от индустрии к экономике с информационной базой.



4. Naisbitt points out «Running out of information is not a problem, but drawing in it is».

Как обращает внимание Найсбит: «Утечка информации – не просто проблема, а проблема с неясным исходом».

5. They also complain that marketing information is so widely spread throughout the company that it takes great to locate even simple facts.

Так же они выражают недовольство, заявляя о том, что рыночная информация широко распространена среди компании и заставляет прилагать большие усилия, чтобы определить местоположение простых фактов.

6. Many companies are not studying their managers’ information needs and designing marketing information systems MIS to meet their needs.

Многие компании не обрабатывают предоставляемую информацию менеджеров о необходимостях и разработок маркетинговой информационной системы, чтобы сократить число потребностей.

7. Managers also need non-routine information for special situations on on-the-spot decisions.

Менеджерам так же необходима нестандартная информация для того, чтобы принимать очевидные решения в особых ситуациях.

8. That is why with recent advances in microcomputers, soft ware and communications many companies are decentralizing their MIS.

В связи с последними достижениями в области компьютерных технологий и коммуникаций многие компании децентрализуют свои рыночные информационные системы.




1. Because it helps to create effective marketing tools, also to make recent decisions in on-the-spot situations in our life.

2. Managers got information by being around people, observing them and asking questions.

3. Because many companies become national or international in scope.

4. Selective company is one that has some privilege under other companies to my mind.

5. According John Naisbitt: «The United States are undergoing a «megashift» from an industrial to the information-based economy.

6. He found that more than 65% of the US work force is now employed in producing or processing information, compared to only 17% in 1950. Using improved computer systems and other technologies, companies can provide information in great quantities.

7. He thinks that today’s managers sometimes receive too much information.

8. Yet managers frequently complain that they lack information of the night kind and accumulate too much of the wrong kind.

9. Many companies are now studying their managers’ information needs and designing marketing information systems (MIS) to meet their needs.

10. large companies have centralized MISs that provide managers with regular performance reports, intelligence updates and reports on the results of studies.

11. Without bearing their desks, they can obtain information from internal records or outside information services, and communicate with others through telecommunications.








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